Effect of Global Hypoxia-Ischaemia followed by 24 h of Mild Hypothermia on Organ Pathology and Biochemistry in a Newborn Pig Survival ModelSatas S.b,f · Løberg E.M.c · Porter H.e · Whitelaw A.f · Steen P.A.b,d · Thoresen M.a,f
Departments of aPaediatrics, bExperimental Medical Research, cPathology and dAnaesthesiology, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; eDepartment of Paediatric Pathology and fDivision of Child Health, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
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Background: Perinatal asphyxia may lead to multiorgan damage as well as brain injury. Posthypoxic hypothermia (HT) may protect other organs in addition to the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the systemic effects of our global hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) insult and compare the effect of mild 24-hour HT with normothermia (NT) during unsedated recovery. Method: Thirty-eight newborn pigs were subjected to 45 min of global HI by ventilating them with ∼6% O2. On reoxygenation, pigs were randomised to NT or HT. The 18 NT piglets were maintained at rectal temperature 39.0°C for 72 h. Twenty-three HT pigs (20 experimental HT and 3 sham controls) were cooled to rectal temperature 35°C for 24 h before NT was resumed and the animals then survived a further 48 h. Results: All lesions were small with no apparent clinical effect. The incidence of any damage to the heart (6 HT vs. 9 NT), liver (9 HT vs. 7 NT), kidney (6 HT vs. 9 NT) or intestinal injury (8 HT vs. 2 NT, p = 0.07) was not different in the two groups. More HT piglets developed lung injury, 10 HT and 3 NT. Plasma [Na], [K], [Ca] and [Mg] increased significantly after the HI insult as compared to baseline values. For the 24-hour period plasma [K] and [Ca] were significantly higher in the HT group, the mean area under the curve (AUC) being for [K] AUCHT 4.4 mmol/l vs. AUCNT 3.9 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and for [Ca] AUCHT 2.7 mmol/l vs. AUCNT 2.5 mmol/l, p = 0.01, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase peaked at 48 h in the HT group and at 24 h in the NT group. Creatinine peaked at >72 h in the HT pigs and at 48 h in the NT pigs. White blood cells (WBC) peaked at 12 h for the HT pigs and at 6 h for the NT animals. AUC of the WBC during the cooling was significantly lower in the HT pig (AUCHT 11.1 vs. AUCNT 15.3 103/mm3, p = 0.04). The HT pigs needed more glucose to maintain normal glucose during the last 12 h of HT. Also HT animals needed more oxygen during cooling to maintain PaO2. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of mild HT did not reduce damage in any organ. There was a slight increase in lung damage in the HT group. None of the biochemical or pathological changes were of clinical significance. We conclude that mild HT for 24 h does not affect the organ systems adversely when compared to NT. Additional glucose and oxygen is needed during cooling to maintain normal values.
© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
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