Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Outcome after Brain Haemorrhage

Dennis M.S.

Author affiliations

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK

Related Articles for ""

Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;16(suppl 1):9–13

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: May 16, 2003
Issue release date: April 2003

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1015-9770 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9786 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CED

Abstract

Between 10 and 20% of strokes are due to intracerebral haemorrhage. The 1-month case fatality is about 42% in unselected cohorts. This relatively low incidence (compared with ischaemic stroke) and high early case fatality means that relatively few patients are available for long-term follow-up and therefore the available data on prognosis are imprecise. Moreover, improvements in diagnostic methods, such as the introduction of gradient echo MRI, which is very sensitive to intracerebral haemorrhage, are altering the types of patients being entered into studies of prognosis. Despite these methodological difficulties, it does appear that the overall prognosis with respect to survival and residual disability is similar to that for ischaemic stroke of equivalent clinical severity. Greater age and stroke severity, whether graded by neurological score or extent of haemorrhage on imaging, are both associated with increased case fatality and poorer functional outcomes. There is no definite evidence of differential recovery between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Epileptic seizures occur more commonly after haemorrhagic stroke (about 8 per 100 patient-years) compared with ischaemic stroke and more commonly in lobar rather than basal ganglia haemorrhage. There is no reliable evidence to indicate that the risk of recurrent stroke after haemorrhage differs from that after ischaemic stroke. However, strokes due to haemorrhage, like those due to infarction, are heterogeneous not only in terms of severity but also in their causes. The causes (e.g. amyloid angiopathy, hypertension, coagulation deficits) are likely to influence the risk of subsequent stroke. Pooling of data from community-based studies of haemorrhagic stroke that have used consistent definitions and methods represents the only feasible way to obtain more precise data on prognosis after intracerebral haemorrhage.

© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Davenport RJ, Dennis MS, Warlow CP: Effect of correcting outcome data for case mix: An example from stroke medicine. BMJ 1996;312:1503–1505.
  2. Weir N, Dennis M: Scottish Stroke Outcomes Group: Towards a national system for monitoring the quality of hospital-based stroke services. Stroke 2001;32:1415–1421.
  3. Sudlow CLM, Warlow CP: Comparing stroke incidence worldwide: What makes studies comparable? Stroke 1996;27:550–558.
  4. Wardlaw JM, Keir SL, Dennis MS: The impact of delays in computed tomography of the brain on the accuracy of diagnosis and subsequent management in patients with minor stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:77–81.
  5. Keir SL, Wardlaw JM, Warlow CP: Stroke epidemiology studies have underestimated the frequency of intracerebral haemorrhage. A systematic review of imaging in epidemiological studies. J Neurol 2002;249:1226–1231.
  6. Anderson CS, Jamrozik KD, Burvill PW, Chakera TM, Johnson GA, Stewart-Wynne EG: Determining the incidence of different subtypes of stroke: Results from the Perth Community Stroke Study, 1989–1990. Med J Aust 1993;158:85–89.
  7. Counsell C, Boonyakarnkul S, Dennis M, Sandercock P, Bamford J, Burn J, Warlow C: Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. 2. Prognosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 1995;5:26–34.
  8. Vemmos KN, Bots ML, Tsibouris PK, Zis VP, Grobbee DE, Stranjalis GS, Stamelopoulos S: Stroke incidence and case fatality in southern Greece. The Arcadia Stroke Registry. Stroke 1999;30:363–370.
  9. Kolominsky-Rabas PL, Sarti C, Heuschmann PU, Graf C, Siemonsen S, Neundoerfor B, Katalinc A, Lang E, Gassmann KG, von Stockert TR: A prospective community-based study of stroke in Germany – The Erlangen Stroke Project (ESPro). Incidence and case fatality at 1, 3 and 12 months. Stroke 1998;29:2501–2506.
  10. Ellekjær H, Holmen J, Indredavik B, Terent A: Epidemiology of stroke in Innherred, Norway, 1994–1996: Incidence and 30-day case-fatality rate. Stroke 1997;28:2180–2184.
  11. Lauria G, Gentile M, Fassetta G, Casetta I, Agnoli F, Andreotta G, Barp C, Caneve G, Cavallero A, Cielo R, Mongillo D, Mosca M, Olivieri PG: Incidence and prognosis of stroke in the Belluno Province, Italy. First-year results of a community-based study. Stroke 1995;26:1787–1793.
  12. D’Alessandro G, Di Giovanni M, Roveyaz L, Iannizzi L, Pesenti Compagnoni M, Blanc S, Bottacchi E: Incidence and prognosis of stroke in the Valle d’Aosta, Italy: First-year results of a community-based study. Stroke 1992;23:1712–1715.
  13. Giroud M, Gras P, Chadan N, Beuriat P, Milan C, Arveux P, Duams R: Cerebral haemorrhage in a French prospective population study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:595–598.
  14. Ricci S, Celani MG, La Rosa F, Vitali R, Duca E, Ferraguzzi R, Paolotti M, Seppoloni D, Caputo N, Chiurulla C, Scaroni R, Signorini E: SEPIVAC: A community-based study of stroke incidence in Umbria, Italy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:695–698.
  15. Ashok PP, Radhakrishnan K, Sridharan R, El-Mangoush MA: Incidence and pattern of cerebrovascular disease in Benghazi, Libya. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49:519–523.
  16. Thrift AG, Dewey HM, Macdonell RAL, McNeil JJ, Donnan GA: Stroke incidence on the East Coast of Australia. The North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Stroke 2000;31:2087–2092.
    External Resources
  17. Carolei A, Marini C, Di Naploi M, Di Gianfilippo G, Santalucia P, Baldassarre M, De Matteis G, di Orio F: High stroke incidence in the prospective community-based L’Aquila registry (1994–1998). First year’s results. Stroke 1997;28:2500–2506.
  18. Counsell C, Dennis M: Systematic review of prognostic models in patients with acute stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2001;12:159–170.
  19. Dennis MS, Burn JPS, Sandercock PAG, Bamford JM, Wade DT, Warlow CP: Long-term survival after first-ever stroke: The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Stroke 1993;24:796–800.
  20. Warlow CP, Dennis MS, Van Gijn J, Hankey G, Bamford J, Wardlaw J: A practical approach to management of stroke patients; in Stroke: A Practical Guide to Management, ed 2. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 2000, pp 414–441.
  21. Jorgensen HS, Nakayama H, Raaschou HO, Olsen TS: Intracerebral hemorrhage versus infarction: Stroke severity, risk factors and prognosis. Ann Neurol 1995;38:45–50.
  22. Bailey RD, Hart RG, Benavente O, Pearce LA: Recurrent brain hemorrhage is more frequent than ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage. Neurology 2001;56:773–777.
  23. Burn J, Dennis M, Bamford J, Sandercock P, Wade D, Warlow C: Long-term risk of recurrent stroke after a first-ever stroke. Stroke 1994;25:333–337.
  24. Al-Shahi R, Warlow C: A systematic review of the frequency and prognosis of arteriovenous malformations of the brain in adults. Brain 2001;124:1900–1926.
    External Resources
  25. PROGRESS Collaborative Group: Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001;358:1033–1041.
  26. Burn J, Dennis M, Bamford J, Sandercock P, Wade D, Warlow C: Epileptic seizures after a first stroke: The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. BMJ 1997;315:1582–1587.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: May 16, 2003
Issue release date: April 2003

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1015-9770 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9786 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CED


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.