Coemergence of Insomnia and a Shift in the Th1/Th2 Balance toward Th2 DominanceSakami S.a,b · Ishikawa T.a · Kawakami N.c · Haratani T.d · Fukui A.e · Kobayashi F.f · Fujita O.g · Araki S.d · Kawamura N.a
aDivision of Psychosomatic Research, National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba, bDepartment of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, cOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, dNational Institute of Industrial Health, Kanagawa, eDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, fDepartment of Psychosocial Medicine, Aichi Medical University, gHealth Care Center, Aichi University of Education, Aichi, Japan
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Objectives: Insomnia is associated with physical and mental disorders. We examined the effect of insomnia on immune functions, focusing on the T helper 1 (Th1)/ T helper 2 (Th2) balance, by a cross-sectional design. Methods: We provided a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate sleep habits, smoking and medical disorders to 578 men without any toxic exposure (20–64 years old), and measured natural killer (NK) cell activity in 324 men and production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin in 254 men. According to the criteria of DSM-IV, in which insomnia is classified into primary and secondary insomnia, we assessed the effect of insomnia on immune functions, controlling for age and smoking in groups with and without medical disorders. Results: The prevalence of insomnia in the present study was 9.2%. In the absence of medical disorders, insomniac men had a significantly lower IFN-γ and ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 than noninsomniac men. Men with insufficient sleep or difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) had a significantly lower IFN-γ to IL-4 ratio than those not suffering from insufficient sleep or DIS. In the presence of medical disorders, insomniac men had significantly higher IL-4 than noninsomniac men. Men with difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) had a significantly lower IFN-γ to IL-4 ratio than men without DMS. NK cell activity was independent of insomnia. Conclusions: The present results showed a link between insomnia unrelated to medical disorders and a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 dominance, indicating that the relationship between sleep quality and the etiology of immune-related diseases should be reconsidered.
© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.