X chromosome inactivation
Escape from X inactivationDisteche C.M.a,b · Filippova G.N.c · Tsuchiya K.D.d
Departments of aPathology and bMedicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA; cDivision of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle WA; and d Division of Genetic Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN (USA)
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Although the process of X inactivation in mammalian cells silences the majority of genes on the inactivated X chromosome, some genes escape this chromosome-wide silencing. Genes that escape X inactivation present a unique opportunity to study the process of silencing and the mechanisms that protect some genes from being turned off. In this review, we will discuss evolutionary aspects of escape from X inactivation, in relation to the divergence of the sex chromosomes. Molecular characteristics, expression, and epigenetic modifications of genes that escape will be presented, including their developmental regulation and the implications of chromatin domains along the X chromosome in modeling the escape process.
© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
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