In vitro Susceptibility of Candida dubliniensis to Current and New Antifungal AgentsQuindós G.a · Carrillo-Muñoz A.J.b · Arévalo M.P.c · Salgado J.c · Alonso-Vargas R.a · Rodrigo J.M.a · Ruesga M.T.a · Valverde A.d · Pemán J.e · Cantón E.e · Martín-Mazuelos E.d · Pontón J.a
aDepartamento de Inmunología, Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, bDepartamento de Microbiología, ACIA, Barcelona, cCátedra de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, dServicio de Microbiología Clínica, Hospital Universitario Valme, Seville, and eServicio de Microbiología, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain
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Background: Candida dubliniensis is a recently described Candida species closely related to Candida albicans, which has been associated with oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. Fluconazole-resistant strains of C. dubliniensis are easily obtained in vitro and this fact could be a complication if this resistance develops during treatment with this drug. Methods: In the present study, the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of 36 C. dubliniensis clinical isolates and culture strains to current and new antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B (AMB), amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC), amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD), 5-fluorocytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), ketoconazole (KTC), liposomal amphoteri- cin B (LAMB), liposomal nystatin (LNYT), LY303366 (LY), SCH56592 (SCH), and voriconazole (VRC), were determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A broth microdilution method for yeasts. Results: Most isolates of C. dubliniensis were susceptible to both new and current antifungal drugs, with 75.9% isolates susceptible to KTC, 86.2% to FLC and to ITC, and ∼100% to the other antifungal agents tested. The cross-resistance phenotypes are detailed. Four isolates were resistant (MIC ≥64 μg/ml) to FLC. These 4 isolates were also resistant to KTC, and 3 of them were also resistant to ITC (MIC ≥1 μg/ml for both agents). However, these isolates were highly susceptible to 5FC and all polyene formulations (AMB, ABLC, ABCD, LAMB, and LNYT), triazole (SCH and VRC) and echinocandin (LY) antifungal agents. Conclusion: The new liposomal and lipidic formulations of AMB, LNYT, and the new triazoles and echinocandins may provide new alternatives to FLC for the treatment of infections by C. dubliniensis.
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