Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Research Article

Detecting Dementia: Novel Neuropsychological Markers of Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease

Blackwell A.D.a · Sahakian B.J.a · Vesey R.a · Semple J.M.a,d · Robbins T.W.c · Hodges J.R.b

Author affiliations

Departments of aPsychiatry, bNeurology and cExperimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, and dGlaxoSmithKline Centre for Clinical Investigation, Cambridge, UK

Related Articles for ""

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17:42–48

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: June 06, 2003
Published online: December 11, 2003
Issue release date: December 2003

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DEM

Abstract

The results of a previous study have suggested that impaired performance on one neuropsychological test, CANTAB Paired Associates Learning (PAL), may serve as a marker for preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a group of individuals with ‘questionable dementia’, the baseline PAL performance was found to correlate significantly with subsequent deterioration in global cognitive function over an 8-month period. The present paper reports diagnostic outcome data for the same individuals 32 months after the first assessment and evaluates the predictive diagnostic utility of baseline neuropsychological measures. Thirty-two months after joining the study, 11 of the 43 ‘questionable dementia’ patients met the criteria for probable AD diagnosis (‘converters’) and 29 remained free from AD (‘non-converters’). Logistic regression analysis revealed that two tests of memory, in combination, could be used to predict a later diagnosis of probable AD with a high level of accuracy [χ2(3) = 47.054, p < 0.0001]. As predicted, these tests are measures of visuospatial learning (CANTAB PAL) and, also, semantic memory (Graded Naming Test). These two tests in combination appear to be highly accurate in detecting cognitive dysfunction characteristic of preclinical AD. Using these tests, a simple algorithm is described for calculating, with 100% accuracy for this sample of 40 patients, the probability that an individual with mild memory impairments will go on to receive a diagnosis of probable AD.

© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  2. Fox NC, Warrington EK, Rossor MN: Serial magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral atrophy in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1999;353:2125.
  3. Bowen J, Teri L, Kukull W, McCormick W, McCurry SM, Larson EB: Progression to dementia in patients with isolated memory loss. Lancet 1997;349:763–765.
  4. Braak H, Braak E: Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1991;82:239–259.
  5. Smith ML, Milner B: The role of the right hippocampus in the recall of spatial location. Neuropsychologia 1981;19:781–793.
  6. McDonald RJ, White NM: A triple dissociation of memory systems: Hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal striatum. Behav Neurosci 1993;107:3–22.
  7. Miyashita Y, Kameyama M, Hasegawa I, Fukushima T: Consolidation of visual associative long-term memory in the temporal cortex of primates. Neurobiol Learn Mem 1998;70:197–211.
  8. Owen AM, Milner B, Petrides M, Evans AC: A specific role for the right parahippocampal gyrus in the retrieval of object-location: A positron emission tomography study. J Cogn Neurosci 1996;8:588–602.
  9. Maguire EA, Frith CD, Burgess N, Donnett JG, O’Keefe J: Knowing where things are: Parahippocampal involvement in encoding object locations in virtual large-scale space. J Cogn Neurosci 1998;10:61–76.
  10. Sahakian BJ, Morris RG, Evenden JL, Heald A, Levy R, Philpot M, Robbins TW: A comparative study of visuospatial memory and learning in Alzheimer-type dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1988;111:695–718.
    External Resources
  11. Swainson R, Hodges JR, Galton CJ, Semple J, Michael A, Dunn BD, Iddon JL, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ: Early detection and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and depression with neuropsychological tasks. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2001;12:265–280.
  12. World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki: Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. World Medical Association, 1996.
  13. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4 (DSM-IV). Washington, APA, 1994.
  14. Nelson HE: National Adult Reading Test (NART) Test Manual. Windsor, NFER-Nelson, 1982.
  15. Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Davis KL: A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1356–1364.
  16. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-Mental State’: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  17. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, Leirer VO: Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1982;17:37–49.
  18. Warrington EK: Camden Memory Tests. Hove, Psychology Press, 1996.
  19. Baddeley A, Emslie H, Nimmo-Smith I: Doors and People. Bury St Edmunds, Thames Valley Test Company, 1994.
  20. Wechsler D: Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised. San Antonio, Psychological Corporation, 1987.
  21. McKenna P, Warrington EK: Testing for nominal dysphasia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:781–788.
  22. Bozeat S, Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Garrard P, Hodges JR: Non-verbal semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia 2000;38:1207–1215.
    External Resources
  23. Newcombe F: Missile Wounds of the Brain. London, Oxford University Press, 1969.
  24. SPSS Inc: SPSS for Windows, version 10.0, Chicago.
  25. Tierney MC, Szalai JP, Snow WG, Fisher RH, Nores A, Nadon G, Dunn E, St George-Hyslop PH: Prediction of probable Alzheimer’s disease in memory-impaired patients: A prospective longitudinal study. Neurology 1996;46:661–665.
  26. Hodges JR, Patterson K: Is semantic memory consistently impaired early in the course of Alzheimer’s disease? Neuroanatomical and diagnostic implications. Neuropsychologia 1995;33:441–459.
    External Resources
  27. Damasio AR, Damasio H, Tranel D, Brandt JP: Neural regionalization of knowledge access: Preliminary evidence. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 1990;55:1039–1047.
  28. Hodges JR, Patterson K, Oxbury S, Funnell E: Semantic dementia: Progressive fluent aphasia with temporal lobe atrophy. Brain 1992;115(pt 6):1783–1806.
  29. Pietrini V, Nertempi P, Vaglia A, Revello MG, Pinna V, Ferro-Milone F: Recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis: Selective impairment of specific semantic categories with neuroradiological correlation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:1284–1293.
  30. Sartori G, Job R, Miozzo M, Zago S, Marchiori G: Category-specific form-knowledge deficit in a patient with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1993;15:280–299.
  31. Warrington EK, Shallice T: Category specific semantic impairments. Brain 1984;107:829–854.
    External Resources
  32. Fowler KS, Saling MM, Conway EL, Semple JM, Louis WJ: Paired associate performance in the early detection of DAT. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2002;8:58–71.
  33. de Jager CA, Milwain E, Budge M: Early detection of isolated memory deficits in the elderly: The need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests. Psychol Med 2002;32:483–491.
  34. Huppert FA, Brayne C, Gill C, Paykel ES, Beardsall L: CAMCOG – A concise neuropsychological test to assist dementia diagnosis: Socio-demographic determinants in an elderly population sample. Br J Clin Psychol 1995;34:529–541.
  35. Lee A, Rahman S, Hodges JR, Sahakian BJ, Graham KS: Associative and recognition memory for objects in dementia: Implications for diagnosis. Eur J Neurosci, in press.
  36. Kosunen O, Soininen H, Paljarvi L, Heinonen O, Talasniemi S, Riekkinen PJ Sr: Diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer’s disease: A neuropathological study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1996;91:185–193.
  37. Engler H, Blomqvist G, Bergstrom M, Estrada S, Sandell J, Antoni G, Langstrom B, Nordberg A, Barletta J, Klunk W, Debnath M, Holt D, Wang YM, Huang GF, Mathis C: First human study with a benzothiazole amyloid-imaging agent in Alzheimer’s disease and control subjects. Neurobiol Aging 2002;23:1568.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: June 06, 2003
Published online: December 11, 2003
Issue release date: December 2003

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.