An ordered BAC contig map of the equine major histocompatibility complexGustafson A.L.a · Tallmadge R.L.b · Ramlachan N.a · Miller D.b · Bird H.b · Antczak D.F.b · Raudsepp T.a · Chowdhary B.P.a · Skow L.C.a
aDepartment of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; bJames A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA)
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
A physical map of ordered bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was constructed to determine the genetic organization of the horse major histocompatibility complex. Human, cattle, pig, mouse, and rat MHC gene sequences were compared to identify highly conserved regions which served as source templates for the design of overgo primers. Thirty-five overgo probes were designed from 24 genes and used for hybridization screening of the equine USDA CHORI 241 BAC library. Two hundred thirty-eight BAC clones were assembled into two contigs spanning the horse MHC region. The first contig contains the MHC class II region and was reduced to a minimum tiling path of nine BAC clones that span approximately 800 kb and contain at least 20 genes. A minimum tiling path of a second contig containing the class III/I region is comprised of 14 BAC clones that span approximately 1.6 Mb and contain at least 34 genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using representative clones from each of the three regions of the MHC localized the contigs onto ECA20q21 and oriented the regions relative to one another and the centromere. Dual-colored FISH revealed that the class I region is proximal to the centromere, the class II region is distal, and the class III region is located between class I and II. These data indicate that the equine MHC is a single gene-dense region similar in structure and organization to the human MHC and is not disrupted as in ruminants and pigs.
© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Albright-Fraser DG, Reid R, Gerber V, Bailey E: Polymorphism of DRA among equids. Immunogenetics 43:315–317 (1996).
- Alexander AJ, Bailey E, Woodward JG: Analysis of the equine lymphocyte antigen system by Southern blot hybridization. Immunogenetics 25:47–54 (1987).
- Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ: Basic local alignment search tool. J molec Biol 215:403–410 (1990).
- Amadou C: Evolution of the Mhc class I region: the framework hypothesis. Immunogenetics 49:362–367 (1999).
- Amadou C, Kumanovics A, Jones EP, Lambracht-Washington D, Yoshino M, Lindahl KF: The mouse major histocompatibility complex: some assembly required. Immunol Rev 167:211–221 (1999).
- Ansari HA, Hediger R, Fries R, Stranzinger G: Chromosomal localization of the major histocompatibility complex of the horse (ELA) by in situ hybridization. Immunogenetics 28:362–364 (1988).
- Apanius V, Penn D, Slev PR, Ruff LR, Potts WK: The nature of selection on the major histocompatibility complex. Crit Rev Immunol 17:179–224 (1997).
Bailey E, Marti E, Fraser DG, Antczak DF, Lazary S: Immunogenetics of the horse, in Bowling AT, Ruvinsky A (eds): The Genetics of the Horse, Chapt 7, pp 123–155 (CAB International, Oxon 2000).
- Band M, Larson JH, Womack JE, Lewin HA: A radiation hybrid map of BTA23: identification of a chromosomal rearrangement leading to separation of the cattle MHC class II subregions. Genomics 53:269–275 (1998).
- Barbis DP, Maher JK, Stanek J, Klaunberg BA, Antczak DF: Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes. Immunogenetics 40:163 (1994).
- Beck TW, Menninger J, Voigt G, Newmann K, Nishigaki Y, Nash WG, Stephens RM, Wang Y, de Jong PJ, O’Brien SJ, Yuhki N: Comparative feline genomics: a BAC/PAC contig map of the major histocompatibility complex class II region. Genomics 71:282–295 (2001).
- Carpenter S, Baker JM, Bacon SJ, Hopman T, Maher J, Ellis SA, Antczak DF: Molecular and functional characterization of genes encoding horse MHC class I antigens. Immunogenetics 53:802–809 (2001).
Chardon P, Renard C, Vaiman M: The major histocompatibility complex in swine, Immunol Rev 167:179–192 (1999).
- Chowdhary BP, Raudsepp T, Kata SR, Goh G, Millon LV, Allan V, Piumi F, Guerin G, Swinburne J, Binns M, Lear TL, Mickelson J, Murray J, Antczak DF, Womack JE, Skow LC: The first-generation whole-genome radiation hybrid map in the horse identifies conserved segments in human and mouse genomes. Genome Res 13:742–751 (2003).
- Crepaldi T, Crump A, Newman M, Ferrone S, Antczak DF: Equine T lymphocytes express class II MHC antigens. J Immunogenet 13:349–360 (1986).
- Dawkins R, Leelayuwat C, Gaudieri S, Tay G, Hui J, Cattley S, Martinez P, Kulski J: Genomics of the major histocompatibility complex: haplotypes, duplication, retroviruses and disease. Immunol Rev 167:275–304 (1999).
- Donaldson WL, Oriol JG, Plavin A, Antczak DF: Developmental regulation of class I Major Histocompatibility Complex antigen expression by equine trophoblastic cells. Differentiation 52:69–78 (1992).
- Ellis SA, Ballingall KT: Cattle MHC: evolution in action? Immunol Rev 167:159–168 (1999).
- Ellis SA, Martin AJ, Holmes EC, Morrison WI: At least four MHC class I genes are transcribed in the horse: phylogenetic analysis suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the MHC in this species. Eur J Immunogenet 22:249–260 (1995).
Fraser DG, Bailey E: Demonstration of three DRB loci in a domestic horse family. Immunogenetics 441–445 (1996).
Fraser DG, Bailey E: Polymorphism and multiple loci in the horse DQA gene. Immunogenetics 487–490 (1998).
- Gongora R, Figueroa F, Klein J: Complex origin of the HLA-DR10 haplotype. J Immunol 159:6044–6051 (1997).
- Gunther E, Walter L: The major histocompatibility complex of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). Immunogenetics 53:520–542 (2001).
Han CS, Sutherland RD, Jewett PB, Campbell ML, Meincke LJ, Tesmer JG, Mundt MO, Fawcett JJ, Kim U, Deaven LL, Doggett NA: Construction of a BAC contig map of chromosome 16q by two-dimensional overgo hybridization. Genome Res 10:741–721 (2000).
- Hedrick PW, Parker KM, Miller EL, Miller PS: Major histocompatibility complex variation in the endangered Przewalski’s horse. Genetics 152:1701–1710 (1999).
- Horin P, Matiasovic J: A second locus and new alleles in the major histocompatibility complex class II (ELA-DQB) region in the horse. Anim Genet 33:196–200 (2002).
- Kaufman J, Milne S, Gobel TW, Walker BA, Jacob JP, Auffray C, Zoorob R, Beck S: The chicken B locus is a minimal essential major histocompatibility complex. Nature 401:923–925 (1999).
- Kulski JK, Shiina T, Anzai T, Kohara S, Inoko H: Comparative genomic analysis of the MHC: the evolution of class I duplication blocks, diversity and complexity from shark to man. Immunol Rev 190:95–122 (2002).
Kumnovics A, Takada T, Lindahl KF: Genomic organization of the Mammalian MHC. A Rev Immunol 21:629–657 (2003).
- Leelayuwat C, Zhang WJ, Abraham LJ, Townend DC, Gaudieri S, Dawkins RL: Differences in the central major histocompatibility complex between humans and chimpanzees. Implications for development of autoimmunity and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Hum Immunol 38:30–41 (1993).
- Lewin HA, Russell GC, Glass EJ: Comparative organization and function of the major histocompatibility complex of domesticated cattle. Immunol Rev 167:145–158 (1999).
- Makinen A, Chowdhary B, Mahdy E, Andersson L, Gustavsson I: Localization of the equine major histocompatibility complex (ELA) to chromosome 20 by in situ hybridization. Hereditas 110:93–96 (1989).
- Marra MA, Kucaba TA, Dietrich NL, Green ED, Brownstein B, Wilson RK, McDonald KM, Hillier LW, McPherson JD, Waterston RH: High throughput fingerprint analysis of large-insert clones. Genome Res 7:1072–1084 (1997).
Marti E, Szalai G, Antczak DF, Bailey E, Gerber H, Lazary S: The Equine Major Histocompatibility Complex, in Schook LB, Lamont SJ (eds): The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species, Chapt 10, pp 245–267 (CRC Press, Boca Raton 1996).
- McShane RD, Gallagher DS Jr, Newkirk H, Taylor JF, Burzlaff JD, Davis SK, Skow LC: Physical localization and order of genes in the class I region of the bovine MHC. Anim Genet 32:235–239 (2001).
- The MHC sequencing consortium: Consortium MS: Complete sequence and gene map of a human major histocompatibility complex. Nature 401:921–923 (1999).
- Peelman LJ, Chardon P, Vaiman M, Mattheeuws M, Van Zeveren A, Van de Weghe A, Bouquet Y, Campbell RD: A detailed physical map of the porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region: comparison with human and mouse MHC class III regions. Mammal Genome 7:363–367 (1996).
- Raudsepp T, Kijas J, Godard S, Guerin G, Andersson L, Chowdhary BP: Comparison of horse chromosome 3 with donkey and human chromosomes by cross-species painting and heterologous FISH mapping. Mammal Genome 10:277–282 (1999).
- Shiina T, Oka A, Imanishi T, Hanzawa K, Gojobori T, Watanabe S, Inoko H: Multiple class I loci expressed by the quail Mhc. Immunogenetics 49:456–460 (1999).
- Smith TP, Rohrer GA, Alexander LJ, Troyer DL, Kirby-Dobbels KR, Janzen MA, Cornwell DL, Louis CF, Schook LB, Beattie CW: Directed integration of the physical and genetic linkage maps of swine chromosome 7 reveals that the SLA spans the centromere. Genome Res 5:259–271 (1995).
- Skow LC, Snaples SN, Taylor JF, Huang B, Gallagher DH: Localization of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) DYA and class I loci to different regions of chromosome 23. Mammal Genome 7:388–389 (1996).
- Soderlund C, Longden I, Mott R: FPC: a system for building contigs from restriction fingerprinted clones. Comput Appl Biosci 13:523–535 (1997).
- Sulston J, Mallett F, Staden R, Durbin R, Horsnell T, Coulson A: Software for genome mapping by fingerprinting techniques. Comput Appl Biosci 4:125–132 (1988).
Szalai G, Antczak DF, Gerber H, Lazary S: Molecular cloning and characterization of horse DQA cDNA. Immunogenetics 40:457(1994a).
Szalai G, Antczak DF, Gerber H, Lazary S: Molecular cloning and characterization of horse DQB cDNA. Immunogenetics 40:458 (1994b).
- Tatusova TA, Madden TL: Blast 2 sequences – a new tool for comparing protein and nucleotide sequences. FEMS Microbiol Lett 174:247–250 (1999).
- Trowsdale J: Genetic and functional relationships between MHC and NK receptor genes. Immunity 15:363–374 (2001).
- Velten FW, Renard C, Rogel-Gaillard C, Vaiman M, Chardon P: Spatial arrangement of pig MHC class I sequences. Immunogenetics 49:919–930 (1999).
- Wagner JL: Molecular organization of the canine major histocompatibility complex. J Hered 94:23–26 (2003).
- Walter L, Hurt P, Himmelbauer H, Sudbrak R, Gunther E: Physical mapping of the major histocompatibility complex class II and class III regions of the rat. Immunogenetics 54:268–275 (2002).
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.