Pharmacopsychiatry. Editor: B. Saletu (Vienna). Original Paper
Effects of the South American Psychoactive Beverage Ayahuasca on Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Humans: A Functional Neuroimaging Study Using Low-Resolution Electromagnetic TomographyRiba J.a · Anderer P.b · Jané F.a · Saletu B.b · Barbanoj M.J.a
aÀrea d`Investigació Farmacològica, Institut de Recerca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Departament de Farmacologia i Terapèutica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; bDivision of Sleep Research and Pharmacopsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Vienna, Vienna,Austria
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting β-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT2A agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca.
© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Schultes RE, Hofmann A: Plantas de los dioses: Orígenes del uso de los alucinógenos. México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982.
- Dobkin de Rios M: Commentary. On ‘Human pharmacology of hoasca’: A medical anthropology perspective. J Nerv Ment Dis 1996;184:95–98.
Anonymous: L’Ayahuasca: de l’Amazonie à la jungle urbaine; in: La Géopolitique Mondiale des Drogues 1998/1999. Paris, Observatoire Géopolitique des Drogues, 2000, pp 102–106.
- Rivier L, Lindgren JE: ‘Ayahuasca’, the South American hallucinogenic drink: An ethnobotanical and chemical investigation. Econ Bot 1972;26:101–129.
- McKenna DJ, Towers GHN, Abbott F: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants: Tryptamine and β-carboline constituents of Ayahuasca. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;10:195–223.
- Smith RL, Canton H, Barrett RJ, Sanders-Bush E: Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998;61:323–330.
- Ott J: Pharmahuasca: Human pharmacology of oral DMT plus harmine. J Psychoactive Drugs 1999;31:171–177.
- Suzuki O, Katsumata Y, Oya M: Characterization of eight biogenic indoleamines as substrates for type A and type B monoamine oxidase. Biochem Pharmacol 1981;30:1353–1358.
- Riba J, Rodríguez-Fornells A, Urbano G, Morte A, Antonijoan R, Montero M, Callaway JC, Barbanoj MJ: Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;154:85–95.
- Riba J, Valle M, Urbano G, Yritia M, Morte A, Barbanoj MJ: Human pharmacology of Ayahuasca: Subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;306:73–83.
- Riba J, Anderer P, Morte A, Urbano G, Jané F, Saletu B, Barbanoj MJ: Topographic pharmaco-EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002;53:613–628.
- Pascual-Marqui RD, Michel CM, Lehmann D: Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: A new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int J Psychophysiol 1994;18:49–65.
- Pascual-Marqui RD, Lehmann D, Koenig T, Kochi K, Merlo MCG, Hell D, Koukkou M: Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) functional imaging in acute, neuroleptic-naive, first-episode, productive schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1999;90:169–179.
- Anderer P, Saletu B, Pascual-Marqui RD: Effects of the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: A functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Psychiatry Res 2000;100:81–96.
- Frei E, Gamma A, Pascual-Marqui R, Lehmann D, Hell D, Vollenweider FX: Localization of MDMA-induced brain activity in healthy volunteers using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Hum Brain Mapp 2001;14:152–165.
- Hermle L, Fünfgeld M, Oepen G, Botsch H, Borchardt D, Gouzoulis E, Fehrenbach RA, Spitzer M: Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic effects in normal subjects: Experimental psychosis as a tool for psychiatric research. Biol Psychiatry 1992;32:976–991.
- Vollenweider FX, Leenders KL, Scharfetter C, Maguire P, Stadelmann O, Angst J: Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 1997;16:357–372.
- Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Schreckenberger M, Sabri O, Arning C, Thelen B, Spitzer M, Kovar KA, Hermle L, Büll U, Sass H: Neurometabolic effects of psilocybin, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [18F]FDG. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999;20:565–581.
- Callaway JC, Raymon LP, Hearn WL, McKenna DJ, Grob CS, Brito GC, Mash DC: Quantitation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and harmala alkaloids in human plasma after oral dosing with ayahuasca. J Anal Toxicol 1996;20:492–497.
- Anderer P, Semlitsch HV, Saletu B, Barbanoj MJ: Artifact processing in topographic mapping of electroencephalographic activity in neuropsychopharmacology. Psychiatry Res 1992;45:79–93.
- Semlitsch HV, Anderer P, Schuster P, Presslich O: A solution for reliable and valid reduction of ocular artifacts, applied to the P300 ERP. Psychophysiology 1986;23:695–703.
- Anderer P, Saletu B, Kinsperger K, Semlitsch H: Topographic brain mapping of EEG in neuropsychopharmacology. I. Methodological aspects. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1987;9:371–384.
- Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Fichte K, Freund G: Reflections on the topics: EEG frequency bands and regulation of vigilance. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol 1979;12:237–245.
- Ary JP, Klein SA, Fender DH: Location of sources of evoked scalp potentials: Corrections for skull and scalp thickness. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1981;28:447–452.
Talairach J, Tournoux P: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme, 1988.
- Towle VL, Bolaños J, Suarez D, Tan K, Grzeszczuk R, Levin DN, Cakmur R, Frank SA, Spire JP: The spatial location of EEG electrodes: Locating the best-fitting sphere relative to cortical anatomy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;86:1–6.
Pascual-Marqui RD: Review of methods for solving the EEG inverse problem. Int J Bioelectromagn 1999;1:75–86.
- Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Uhlenhuth EH, Kellner R: Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:98–108.
- Riba J, Rodríguez-Fornells A, Strassman RJ, Barbanoj MJ: Psychometric assessment of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;62:215–223.
- Holmes AP, Blair RC, Watson JDG, Ford I: Nonparametric analysis of statistic images from functional mapping experiments. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1996;16:7–22.
- Lancaster JL, Rainey LH, Summerlin JL, Freitas CS, Fox PT, Evans AC, Toga AW, Mazziotta JC: Automated labeling of the human brain – a preliminary report on the development and evaluation of a forward-transform method. Hum Brain Mapp 1997;5:238–242.
- Itil T, Fink M: Klinische Untersuchungen und quantitative EEG-Daten bei experimentellen Psychosen. Arzneimittelforschung 1966;16:237–239.
Herrmann WM, Schaerer E: Pharmaco-EEG: Computer EEG analysis to describe the projection of drug effects on a functional cerebral level in humans; in Lopes da Silva FH, Storm van Leeuwen W, Rémond A (eds): Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1986, vol 2:Clinical Application of Computer Analysis of EEG and Other Neurophysiological Signals, pp 385–445.
- Saletu B, Barbanoj MJ, Anderer P, Sieghart W, Grünberger J: Clinical-pharmacological study with two isomers (d-, l-) of fenfluramine and its comparison with chlorpromazine and d-amphetamine: Blood levels, EEG mapping and safety evaluation. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1993;15:291–312.
- Lee DY, Lee KU, Kwon JS, Jang IJ, Cho MJ, Shin SG, Woo JI: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of risperidone effects on electroencephalography in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 1999;144:272–278.
Mesulam MM: Behavioral neuroanatomy: Large-scale networks, association cortex, frontal syndromes, the limbic system, and hemispheric specializations; in Mesulam MM (ed): Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp 1–120.
- Squire LR, Zola-Morgan S: The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science 1991;253:1380–1386.
Devinsky O, Morrell MJ, Vogt BA: Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour. Brain 1995;118:279–306.
- Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Cabeza R, Habib R, Houle S, Tulving E: General and specific brain regions involved in encoding and retrieval of events: What, where and when. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:11280–11285.
- Vollenweider FX, Leenders KL, Øye I, Hell D, Angst J: Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1997;7:25–38.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.