Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Effects of B Chromosomes on the A Genome

The odd-even effect in mitotically unstable B chromosomes in grasshoppers

Camacho J.P.M. · Perfectti F. · Teruel M. · López-León M.D. · Cabrero J.

Author affiliations

Departamento de Genética, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

Related Articles for ""

Cytogenet Genome Res 106:325–331 (2004)

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Effects of B Chromosomes on the A Genome

Published online: August 18, 2004
Issue release date: August 2004

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1424-8581 (Print)
eISSN: 1424-859X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CGR

Abstract

The odd-even effect, by which B chromosomes are more detrimental in odd numbers, has been reported in plants and animals. In grasshoppers, there are only a few reports of this effect and all were referred to as traits related to the formation of aberrant meiotic products (AMPs). Here we review the existing information about B chromosome effects on AMPs, chiasma frequency and the number of active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) per cell. Polysomy for A chromosomes and B chromosomes are two kinds of chromosome polymorphism frequently found in grasshoppers. In some aspects, e.g. meiotic behaviour and mitotic instability leading to individual mosaicism (in the case of mitotically unstable Bs), polysomic As show similar characteristics to B chromosomes. In fact, polysomy is regarded as one of the main mechanisms for B chromosome origin. Here we review some features of meiotic behaviour in known cases of polysomy and mitotically unstable Bs in grasshoppers, in looking for possible causes for the odd-even effect. In all these traits, the odd-even effect was apparent, although its appearance was not universal in any case, with variation among species or populations within the same species. The equational division and lagging of the extra chromosomes, when univalents, could favour the appearance of abnormal meiotic products, and the formation of bivalents, when there are two or more extra chromosomes, inhibits this process. Therefore, the odd-even effect might be a consequence of the concomitant operation of both aspects of extra chromosome meiotic behaviour. The possibility that the odd-even effect might result from an increase in cell stress generated by odd numbers is suggested.   

© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Bell G: The masterpiece of nature: the evolution and genetics of sexuality (University of California Press, Berkeley 1982).
  2. Bell G, Burt A: B chromosomes: germ-line parasites which induce changes in host recombination. Parasitology 100:S19–S26 (1990).
  3. Bidau C: Effects on cytokinesis and sperm formation of a B-isochromosome in Metaleptea brevicornis adspersa (Acridinae, Acrididae). Caryologia 39:165–177 (1986).
  4. Bidau C: Influence of a rare unstable B chromosome on chiasma frequency and non-haploid sperm formation in Dichroplus pratensis (Melanoplinae, Acrididae). Genetica 73:201–210 (1987).
  5. Camacho JPM, Bakkali M, Corral JM, Cabrero J, López-León MD, Aranda I, Martín-Alganza A, Perfectti F: Host recombination is dependent on the degree of parasitism. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 269:2173–2177 (2002).
  6. Camacho JPM, Sharbel TF, Beukeboom LW: B Chromosome evolution. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 355:163–178 (2000).
  7. Chiavarino AM, Rosato M, Manzanero S, Jiménez G, González-Sánchez M, Puertas MJ: Chromosome nondisjunction and instabilities in tapetal cells are affected by B chromosomes in maize. Genetics 155 889–897 (2000).
  8. Clemente M, Remis MI, Vilardi JC, Alberti A: Supernumerary heterochromatin, chiasma conditions and abnormal sperm formation in Dichroplus elongatus (Orthoptera): intra and interpopulation analysis. Caryologia 47:265–279 (1994).
  9. Confalonieri VA, Bidau CJ: The B-chromosomes of 2 species of Cylindrotettix (Leptysminae, Acrididae). Genetica 68:87–95 (1986).
  10. Gosálvez J, López-Fernández C: Extra heterochromatin in natural-populations of Gomphocerus sibiricus (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Genetica 56:197–204 (1981).
  11. Gosálvez J, de la Vega CG, Rufas JS, López-Fernández C: Unstable B-chromosomes producing abnormal spermatid nuclei in Sphingonotus coerulans (Orthoptera). Arch Biol 96:15–22 (1985).
  12. Hewitt GM, John B: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary segments in Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt). I. British populations. Chromosoma 25:319–342 (1968).
  13. Hewitt GM, John B: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary segments in Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt). 4. Ashurst re-visited. Chromosoma 31:198–206 (1970).
  14. Hoffman AA, Parson PA: Evolutionary Genetics and Environmental Stress (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1991).
  15. John B, Hewitt GM: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary segments in Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt).3. The Ashurst population. Chromosoma 28:73–84 (1969).
  16. Jones RN, Rees H: B chromosomes (Academic Press, New York 1982).
  17. Kovalchuk I, Kovalchuk O, Kalck V, Boyko V, Filkowski J, Heinlein M, Hohn B: Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. Nature 423:760–762 (2003).
  18. Loray MA, Remis MI, Vilardi JC: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary heterochromatin in Dichroplus elongatus (Orthoptera). Effects on recombination and fertility. Genetica 84:155–163 (1991).
  19. Nur U: Mitotic instability leading to an accumulation of B-chromosomes in grasshoppers. Chromosoma 27:1–19 (1969).
  20. Peters GB: Germ line polysomy in the grasshopper Atractomorpha similis. Chromosoma 81:593–617 (1981).
  21. Phillips DM: Insect sperm: their structure and morphogenesis. J Cell Biol 44:243–277 (1970).
  22. Remis MI, Vilardi JC: Meiotic behaviour and dosage effect of B-chromosomes on recombination in Dichroplus elongatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Caryologia 39:287–301 (1986).
  23. Salcedo FJ, Viseras E, Camacho JPM: The B chromosomes of Locusta migratoria. III. Effects on the activity of nucleolar organizer regions. Genome 30:387–394 (1988).
  24. Suja JA, Gosálvez J, López-Fernández C, Rufas JS: A cytogenetic analysis in Psophus stridulus (L) (Orthoptera, Acrididae). B-chromosomes and abnormal spermatid nuclei. Genetica 70:217–224 (1989).
  25. Suja JA, de la Vega CG, Rufas JS: Meiotic stability of B chromosomes and production of macrospermatids in Aiolopus strepens (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Genome 29:5–10 (1987).
  26. Talavera M, López-León MD, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM: Male germ line polysomy in the grasshopper Chorthippus binotatus: extra chromosomes are not transmitted. Genome 33:384–388 (1990).
  27. Van Valen L: A new evolutionary law. Evol Theor 1:1–30 (1973).
  28. Viseras E, Camacho JPM: Polysomy in Omocestus bolivari: endophenotypic effects and suppression of nucleolar organizing region activity in the extra autosomes. Can J Genet Cytol 26:547–556 (1984).
  29. Viseras E, Camacho JPM: The B-chromosome system of Omocestus bolivari: changes in B-behaviour in M4-polysomic B-males. Heredity 54:385–390 (1985).
  30. Viseras E, Salcedo FJ, Camacho JPM: The B chromosomes of Locusta migratoria II. Effects on chiasma frequency. Genome 30:118–123 (1988).
  31. Westerman M: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary segments in Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt). 2. French populations. Chromosoma 26:7–21 (1969).
  32. Westerman M: Parallel polymorphism for supernumerary segments in Chorthippus parallelus. 5. New polymorphism in Europe. Heredity 25:662–667 (1970).

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Effects of B Chromosomes on the A Genome

Published online: August 18, 2004
Issue release date: August 2004

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1424-8581 (Print)
eISSN: 1424-859X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CGR


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.