Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Review

The Role of the FcεRI β-Chain in Allergic Diseases

Kraft S. · Rana S. · Jouvin M.-H. · Kinet J.-P.

Author affiliations

Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA

Related Articles for ""

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004;135:62–72

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: July 01, 2004
Accepted: July 08, 2004
Published online: September 22, 2004
Issue release date: September 2004

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/IAA

Abstract

The high affinity receptor for IgE, FcΕRI, is a multimeric surface receptor that is expressed exclusively as a tetramer on rodent cells, but exists as a tetramer or trimer on human cells. The tetrameric form is expressed on effector cells of allergic responses such as mast cells and basophils and is composed of an IgE-binding α-subunit, a β-subunit and a γ-subunit dimer. Complexes lacking the β-subunit are found on human antigen-presenting cells. On mast cells and basophils, FcΕRI is essential for IgE-mediated acute allergic reactions. Crosslinking of FcΕRI by IgE and multivalent antigen induces a signaling cascade that culminates in the release of preformed mediators and the synthesis of lipid mediators and cytokines. The β-subunit functions as an amplifier of FcΕRI expression and signaling. As a consequence, strongly enhanced mast cell effector functions and in vivo allergic reactions can be observed in the presence of FcΕRIβ. In contrast, a truncated β-isoform (βT) that is produced by alternative splicing acts as an inhibitor of FcΕRI surface expression. Thus, by producing two proteins with antagonistic functions, the FcΕRIβ gene could serve as a potent regulator of allergic responses. In addition, the genomic region encompassing the β-chain has been linked to atopy and a number of polymorphisms within the FcΕRIβ gene are associated with various atopic diseases. It remains to be elucidated how these polymorphisms might affect the allergic phenotype. These functions of the β-chain together with the described genetic linkages to atopy make it a candidate for a role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases.

© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Kinet JP: The high-affinity IgE receptor (FCεRI): From physiology to pathology. Annu Rev Immunol 1999;17:931–972.
  2. Williams CM, Galli SJ: The diverse potential effector and immunoregulatory roles of mast cells in allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:847–859.
  3. Maurer D, Fiebiger S, Ebner C, Reininger B, Fischer GF, Wichlas S, Jouvin MH, Schmitt-Egenolf M, Kraft D, Kinet JP, Stingl G: Peripheral blood dendritic cells express FcεRI as a complex composed of FcεRIα- and FcεRIγ-chains and can use this receptor for IgE-mediated allergen presentation. J Immunol 1996;157:607–616.
  4. Letourneur O, Sechi S, Willette-Brown J, Robertson MW, Kinet JP: Glycosylation of human truncated FcεRIα chain is necessary for efficient folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem 1995;270:8249–8256.
  5. Alber G, Miller L, Jelsema CL, Varin-Blank N, Metzger H: Structure-function relationships in the mast cell high affinity receptor for IgE. Role of the cytoplasmic domains and of the β subunit. J Biol Chem 1991;266:22613–22620.
  6. Cambier JC: Antigen and Fc receptor signaling. The awesome power of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). J Immunol 1995;155:3281–3285.
  7. Jouvin MH, Adamczewski M, Numerof R, Letourneur O, Valle A, Kinet JP: Differential control of the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk by the two signaling chains of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor. J Biol Chem 1994;269:5918–5925.
  8. Lin S, Cicala C, Scharenberg AM, Kinet JP: The FcεRIβ subunit functions as an amplifier of FcεRIγ-mediated cell activation signals. Cell 1996;85:985–995.
  9. Blank U, Ra C, Miller L, White K, Metzger H, Kinet JP: Complete structure and expression in transfected cells of high affinity IgE receptor. Nature 1989;337:187–189.
  10. Blank U, Ra CS, Kinet JP: Characterization of truncated α chain products from human, rat, and mouse high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E. J Biol Chem 1991;266:2639–2646.
  11. Garman SC, Kinet JP, Jardetzky TS: Crystal structure of the human high-affinity IgE receptor. Cell 1998;95:951–961.
  12. Kuster H, Thompson H, Kinet JP: Characterization and expression of the gene for the human Fc receptor γ subunit. Definition of a new gene family. J Biol Chem 1990;265:6448–6452.
  13. Miller L, Blank U, Metzger H, Kinet JP: Expression of high-affinity binding of human immunoglobulin E by transfected cells. Science 1989;244:334–337.
  14. Hasegawa S, Pawankar R, Suzuki K, Nakahata T, Furukawa S, Okumura K, Ra C: Functional expression of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) in human platelets and its intracellular expression in human megakaryocytes. Blood 1999;93:2543–2551.
  15. Gounni AS, Lamkhioued B, Koussih L, Ra C, Renzi PM, Hamid Q: Human neutrophils express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcεRI): Role in asthma. FASEB J 2001;15:940–949.
  16. Joseph M, Gounni AS, Kusnierz JP, Vorng H, Sarfati M, Kinet JP, Tonnel AB, Capron A, Capron M: Expression and functions of the high-affinity IgE receptor on human platelets and megakaryocyte precursors. Eur J Immunol 1997;27:2212–2218.
  17. Kurosaki T, Gander I, Wirthmueller U, Ravetch JV: The β subunit of the FcεRI is associated with the FcγRIII on mast cells. J Exp Med 1992;175:447–451.
  18. Hazenbos WL, Gessner JE, Hofhuis FM, Kuipers H, Meyer D, Heijnen IA, Schmidt RE, Sandor M, Capel PJ, Daeron M, van de Winkel JG, Verbeek JS: Impaired IgG-dependent anaphylaxis and Arthus reaction in FcγRIII (CD16) deficient mice. Immunity 1996;5:181–188.
  19. Dombrowicz D, Flamand V, Miyajima I, Ravetch JV, Galli SJ, Kinet JP: Absence of FcεRIα chain results in upregulation of FcγRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Evidence of competition between Fc εRI and Fc γRIII for limiting amounts of FcR β and γ chains. J Clin Invest 1997;99:915–925.
  20. Holowka D, Metzger H: Further characterization of the β-component of the receptor for immunoglobulin E. Mol Immunol 1982;19:219–227.
  21. Kuster H, Zhang L, Brini AT, MacGlashan DW, Kinet JP: The gene and cDNA for the human high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor β chain and expression of the complete human receptor. J Biol Chem 1992;267:12782–12787.
  22. Tedder TF, Engel P: CD20:A regulator of cell-cycle progression of B lymphocytes. Immunol Today 1994;15:450–454.
  23. Adra CN, Lelias JM, Kobayashi H, Kaghad M, Morrison P, Rowley JD, Lim B: Cloning of the cDNA for a hematopoietic cell-specific protein related to CD20 and the β subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor: Evidence for a family of proteins with four membrane-spanning regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:10178–10182.
  24. Sandford AJ, Shirakawa T, Moffatt MF, Daniels SE, Ra C, Faux JA, Young RP, Nakamura Y, Lathrop GM, Cookson WO, et al: Localisation of atopy and β subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on chromosome 11q. Lancet 1993;341:332–334.
  25. Liang Y, Buckley TR, Tu L, Langdon SD, Tedder TF: Structural organization of the human MS4A gene cluster on chromosome 11q12. Immunogenetics 2001;53:357–368.
  26. Liang Y, Tedder TF: Identification of a CD20-, FcεRIβ-, and HTm4-related gene family: Sixteen new MS4A family members expressed in human and mouse. Genomics 2001;72:119–127.
  27. Ishibashi K, Suzuki M, Sasaki S, Imai M: Identification of a new multigene four-transmembrane family (MS4A) related to CD20, HTm4 and β subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor. Gene 2001;264:87–93.
  28. Donato JL, Ko J, Kutok JL, Cheng T, Shirakawa T, Mao XQ, Beach D, Scadden DT, Sayegh MH, Adra CN: Human HTm4 is a hematopoietic cell cycle regulator. J Clin Invest 2002;109:51–58.
  29. Bieber T, de la Salle H, Wollenberg A, Hakimi J, Chizzonite R, Ring J, Hanau D, de la Salle C: Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcεRI). J Exp Med 1992;175:1285–1290.
  30. Maurer D, Fiebiger E, Reininger B, Wolff-Winiski B, Jouvin MH, Kilgus O, Kinet JP, Stingl G: Expression of functional high affinity immunoglobulin E receptors (FcεRI) on monocytes of atopic individuals. J Exp Med 1994;179:745–750.
  31. Wang B, Rieger A, Kilgus O, Ochiai K, Maurer D, Fodingerm D, Kinet JP, Stingl G: Epidermal Langerhans cells from normal human skin bind monomeric IgE via FcεRI. J Exp Med 1992;175:1353–1365.
  32. Seminario MC, Saini SS, MacGlashan DW, Bochner BS: Intracellular expression and release of FcεRI α by human eosinophils. J Immunol 1999;162:6893–6900.
  33. Smith SJ, Ying S, Meng Q, Sullivan MH, Barkans J, Kon OM, Sihra B, Larche M, Levi-Schaffer F, Kay AB: Blood eosinophils from atopic donors express messenger RNA for the α, β and γ subunits of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) and intracellular, but not cell surface, α subunit protein. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:309–317.
  34. de Andres B, Rakasz E, Hagen M, McCormik ML, Mueller AL, Elliot D, Metwali A, Sandor M, Britigan BE, Weinstock JV, Lynch RG: Lack of Fcε receptors on murine eosinophils: Implications for the functional significance of elevated IgE and eosinophils in parasitic infections. Blood 1997;89:3826–3836.
  35. Maeda K, Nishiyama C, Tokura T, Akizawa Y, Nishiyama M, Ogawa H, Okumura K, Ra C: Regulation of cell type-specific mouse FcεRIβ-chain gene expression by GATA-1 via four GATA motifs in the promoter. J Immunol 2003;170:334–340.
  36. Harigae H, Takahashi S, Suwabe N, Ohtsu H, Gu L, Yang Z, Tsai FY, Kitamura Y, Engel JD, Yamamoto M: Differential roles of GATA-1 and GATA-2 in growth and differentiation of mast cells. Genes Cells 1998;3:39–50.
  37. Yu YL, Chiang YJ, Yen JJ: GATA factors are essential for transcription of the survival gene E4bp4 and the viability response of interleukin-3 in Ba/F3 hematopoietic cells. J Biol Chem 2002;277:27144–27153.
  38. Saini SS, Richardson JJ, Wofsy C, Lavens-Phillips S, Bochner BS, MacGlashan DW: Expression and modulation of FcεRIα and FcεRIβ in human blood basophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:832–841.
  39. Kurimoto Y, De Weck AL, Dahinden CA: The effect of interleukin 3 upon IgE-dependent and IgE-independent basophil degranulation and leukotriene generation. Eur J Immunol 1991;21:361–368.
  40. Akizawa Y, Nishiyama C, Hasegawa M, Maeda K, Nakahata T, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H: Regulation of human FcεRI β chain gene expression by Oct-1. Int Immunol 2003;15:549–556.
  41. Takahashi K, Nishiyama C, Hasegawa M, Akizawa Y, Ra C: Regulation of the human high affinity IgE receptor β-chain gene expression via an intronic element. J Immunol 2003;171:2478–2484.
  42. Donnadieu E, Jouvin MH, Kinet JP: A second amplifier function for the allergy-associated FcεRI-β subunit. Immunity 2000;12:515–523.
  43. Donnadieu E, Jouvin MH, Rana S, Moffatt MF, Mockford EH, Cookson WO, Kinet JP: Competing functions encoded in the allergy-associated FcεRIβ gene. Immunity 2003;18:665–674.
  44. Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, et al: The sequence of the human genome. Science 2001;291:1304–1351.
  45. Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, Nusbaum C, Zody MC, Baldwin J, Devon K, Dewar K, Doyle M, FitzHugh W, et al.: Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 2001;409:860–921.
  46. Sorek R, Amitai M: Piecing together the significance of splicing. Nat Biotechnol 2001;19:196.
  47. Modrek B, Lee C: A genomic view of alternative splicing. Nat Genet 2002;30:13–19.
  48. Tasic B, Nabholz CE, Baldwin KK, Kim Y, Rueckert EH, Ribich SA, Cramer P, Wu Q, Axel R, Maniatis T: Promoter choice determines splice site selection in protocadherin α and γ pre-mRNA splicing. Mol Cell 2002;10:21–33.
  49. Wilson BS, Kapp N, Lee RJ, Pfeiffer JR, Martinez AM, Platt Y, Letourneur F, Oliver JM: Distinct functions of the FcεR1γ and β subunits in the control of FcεR1-mediated tyrosine kinase activation and signaling responses in RBL-2H3 mast cells. J Biol Chem 1995;270:4013–4022.
  50. Turner H, Kinet JP: Signalling through the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI. Nature 1999;402:B24–B30.
  51. Flaswinkel H, Barner M, Reth M: The tyrosine activation motif as a target of protein tyrosine kinases and SH2 domains. Semin Immunol 1995;7:21–27.
  52. Letourneur F, Klausner RD: Activation of T cells by a tyrosine kinase activation domain in the cytoplasmic tail of CD3 epsilon. Science 1992;255:79–82.
  53. Scharenberg AM, Lin S, Cuenod B, Yamamura H, Kinet JP: Reconstitution of interactions between tyrosine kinases and the high affinity IgE receptor which are controlled by receptor clustering. EMBO J 1995;14:3385–3394.
  54. Benhamou M, Ryba NJ, Kihara H, Nishikata H, Siraganian RP: Protein-tyrosine kinase p72syk in high affinity IgE receptor signaling. Identification as a component of pp72 and association with the receptor gamma chain after receptor aggregation. J Biol Chem 1993;268:23318–23324.
  55. Benhamou M, Gutkind JS, Robbins KC, Siraganian RP: Tyrosine phosphorylation coupled to IgE receptor-mediated signal transduction and histamine release. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:5327–5330.
  56. Eiseman E, Bolen JB: Engagement of the high-affinity IgE receptor activates src protein-related tyrosine kinases. Nature 1992;355:78–80.
  57. Parravicini V, Gadina M, Kovarova M, Odom S, Gonzalez-Espinosa C, Furumoto Y, Saitoh S, Samelson LE, O’Shea JJ, Rivera J: Fyn kinase initiates complementary signals required for IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation. Nat Immunol 2002;3:741–748.
  58. Nishizumi H, Yamamoto T: Impaired tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilization, but not degranulation, in lyn-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Immunol 1997;158:2350–2355.
  59. Hibbs ML, Tarlinton DM, Armes J, Grail D, Hodgson G, Maglitto R, Stacker SA, Dunn AR: Multiple defects in the immune system of Lyn-deficient mice, culminating in autoimmune disease. Cell 1995;83:301.
  60. Costello PS, Turner M, Walters AE, Cunningham CN, Bauer PH, Downward J, Tybulewicz VL: Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells. Oncogene 1996;13:2595–2605.
  61. Zhang J, Berenstein EH, Evans RL, Siraganian RP: Transfection of Syk protein tyrosine kinase reconstitutes high affinity IgE receptor-mediated degranulation in a Syk-negative variant of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. J Exp Med 1996;184:71–79.
  62. Vonakis BM, Chen H, Haleem-Smith H, Metzger H: The unique domain as the site on Lyn kinase for its constitutive association with the high affinity receptor for IgE. J Biol Chem 1997;272:24072–24080.
  63. Stauffer TP, Martenson CH, Rider JE, Kay BK, Meyer T: Inhibition of Lyn function in mast cell activation by SH3 domain binding peptides. Biochemistry 1997;36:9388–9394.
  64. Pribluda VS, Pribluda C, Metzger H: Transphosphorylation as the mechanism by which the high-affinity receptor for IgE is phosphorylated upon aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:11246–11250.
  65. El-Hillal O, Kurosaki T, Yamamura H, Kinet JP, Scharenberg AM: syk kinase activation by a src kinase-initiated activation loop phosphorylation chain reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:1919–1924.
  66. Pivniouk VI, Martin TR, Lu-Kuo JM, Katz HR, Oettgen HC, Geha RS: SLP-76 deficiency impairs signaling via the high-affinity IgE receptor in mast cells. J Clin Invest 1999;103:1737–1743.
  67. Saitoh S, Arudchandran R, Manetz TS, Zhang W, Sommers CL, Love PE, Rivera J, Samelson LE: LAT is essential for FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation. Immunity 2000;12:525–535.
  68. Fluckiger AC, Li Z, Kato RM, Wahl MI, Ochs HD, Longnecker R, Kinet JP, Witte ON, Scharenberg AM, Rawlings DJ: Btk/Tec kinases regulate sustained increases in intracellular Ca2+ following B-cell receptor activation. EMBO J 1998;17:1973–1985.
  69. Scharenberg AM, El-Hillal O, Fruman DA, Beitz LO, Li Z, Lin S, Gout I, Cantley LC, Rawlings DJ, Kinet JP: Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3)/Tec kinase-dependent calcium signaling pathway: A target for SHIP-mediated inhibitory signals. EMBO J 1998;17:1961–1972.
  70. Gu H, Saito K, Klaman LD, Shen J, Fleming T, Wang Y, Pratt JC, Lin G, Lim B, Kinet JP, Neel BG: Essential role for Gab2 in the allergic response. Nature 2001;412:186–190.
  71. Dykstra M, Cherukuri A, Sohn HW, Tzeng SJ, Pierce SK: Location is everything: Lipid rafts and immune cell signaling. Annu Rev Immunol 2003;21:457–481.
  72. Field KA, Holowka D, Baird B: Fc epsilon RI-mediated recruitment of p53/56lyn to detergent-resistant membrane domains accompanies cellular signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:9201–9205.
  73. Field KA, Holowka D, Baird B: Compartmentalized activation of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor within membrane domains. J Biol Chem 1997;272:4276.
  74. Field KA, Holowka D, Baird B: Structural aspects of the association of FcεRI with detergent-resistant membranes. J Biol Chem 1999;274:1753–1758.
  75. Wilson BS, Pfeiffer JR, Oliver JM: Observing FcεRI signaling from the inside of the mast cell membrane. J Cell Biol 2000;149:1131–1142.
  76. Wilson BS, Pfeiffer JR, Surviladze Z, Gaudet EA, Oliver JM: High resolution mapping of mast cell membranes reveals primary and secondary domains of FcεRI and LAT. J Cell Biol 2001;154:645–658.
  77. Dombrowicz D, Lin S, Flamand V, Brini AT, Koller BH, Kinet JP: Allergy-associated FcRβ is a molecular amplifier of IgE- and IgG-mediated in vivo responses. Immunity 1998;8:517–529.
  78. Dombrowicz D, Brini AT, Flamand V, Hicks E, Snouwaert JN, Kinet JP, Koller BH: Anaphylaxis mediated through a humanized high affinity IgE receptor. J Immunol 1996;157:1645.
  79. Cookson WO, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Hopkin JM: Linkage between immunoglobulin E responses underlying asthma and rhinitis and chromosome 11q. Lancet 1989;i:1292–1295.
  80. Watson M, Lawrence S, Collins A, Beasley R, Doull I, Begishvili B, Lampe F, Holgate ST, Morton NE: Exclusion from proximal 11q of a common gene with megaphenic effect on atopy. Ann Hum Genet 1995;59:403–411.
  81. Hill MR, Cookson WO: A new variant of the beta subunit of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcεRI-β E237G): Associations with measures of atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Hum Mol Genet 1996;5:959–952.
  82. Laprise C, Boulet LP, Morissette J, Winstall E, Raymond V: Evidence for association and linkage between atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the β subunit Glu237Gly variant of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E in the French-Canadian population. Immunogenetics 2000;51:695–702.
  83. Rigoli L, Salpietro DC, Lavalle R, Cafiero G, Zuccarello D, Barberi I: Allelic association of gene markers on chromosome 11q in Italian families with atopy. Acta Paediatr 2000;89:1056–1061.
  84. Shirakawa T, Mao XQ, Sasaki S, Enomoto T, Kawai M, Morimoto K, Hopkin J: Association between atopic asthma and a coding variant of FcεRIβ in a Japanese population. Hum Mol Genet 1996;5:2068.
  85. van Herwerden L, Harrap SB, Wong ZY, Abramson MJ, Kutin JJ, Forbes AB, Raven J, Lanigan A, Walters EH: Linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor gene with bronchial hyperreactivity, even in absence of atopy. Lancet 1995;346:1262–1265.
  86. Trabetti E, Cusin V, Malerba G, Martinati LC, Casartelli A, Boner AL, Pignatti PF: Association of the FcεRIβ gene with bronchial hyper-responsiveness in an Italian population. J Med Genet 1998;35:680.
  87. Nagata H, Mutoh H, Kumahara K, Arimoto Y, Tomemori T, Sakurai D, Arase K, Ohno K, Yamakoshi T, Nakano K, Okawa T, Numata T, Konno A: Association between nasal allergy and a coding variant of the FcεRIβ gene Glu237Gly in a Japanese population. Hum Genet 2001;109:262.
  88. Cox HE, Moffatt MF, Faux JA, Walley AJ, Coleman R, Trembath RC, Cookson WO, Harper JI: Association of atopic dermatitis to the β subunit of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor. Br J Dermatol 1998;138:182–187.
  89. Palmer LJ, Pare PD, Faux JA, Moffatt MF, Daniels SE, LeSouef PN, Bremner PR, Mockford E, Gracey M, Spargo R, Musk AW, Cookson WO: FcεR1-β polymorphism and total serum IgE levels in endemically parasitized Australian aborigines. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:182–188.
  90. Kim YK, Cho SH, Koh YY, Son JW, Lee BJ, Min KU, Kim YY: Linkage between IgE receptor-mediated histamine releasability from basophils and gene marker of chromosome 11q13. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:618.
  91. Novak N, Bieber T, Leung DY: Immune mechanisms leading to atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:S128–S139.
    External Resources
  92. Donnadieu E, Cookson WO, Jouvin MH, Kinet JP: Allergy-associated polymorphisms of the FcεRIβ subunit do not impact its two amplification functions. J Immunol 2000;165:3917–3922.
  93. Shirakawa T, Li A, Dubowitz M, Dekker JW, Shaw AE, Faux JA, Ra C, Cookson WO, Hopkin JM: Association between atopy and variants of the β subunit of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor. Nat Genet 1994;7:125–129.
  94. Green SL, Gaillard MC, Song E, Dewar JB, Halkas A: Polymorphisms of the β chain of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fcε RI-β) in South African black and white asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1487–1492.
  95. Haider MZ, Hijazi Z: Prevalence of high affinity IgE receptor [FcεRIβ] gene polymorphisms in Kuwaiti Arabs with asthma. Clin Genet 1998;54:166–167.
  96. Deichmann KA, Hildebrandt F, Heinzmann A, Schlenther S, Forster J, Kuehr J: Absence of mutations in the 6th exon of FcεRI-β. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;409:355–358.
  97. Martinati LC, Trabetti E, Casartelli A, Boner AL, Pignatti PF: Affected sib-pair and mutation analyses of the high affinity IgE receptor beta chain locus in Italian families with atopic asthmatic children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1682–1685.
  98. Traherne JA, Hill MR, Hysi P, D’Amato M, Broxholme J, Mott R, Moffatt MR, Cookson WO: LD mapping of maternally and non-maternally derived alleles and atopy in FcεRI-β. Hum Mol Genet 2003;12:2577–2585.
  99. Nishio Y, Noguchi E, Ito S, Ichikawa E, Umebayashi Y, Otsuka F, Arinami T: Mutation and association analysis of the interferon regulatory factor 2 gene (IRF2) with atopic dermatitis. J Hum Genet 2001;46:664–667.
  100. Hida S, Ogasawara K, Sato K, Abe M, Takayanagi H, Yokochi T, Sato T, Hirose S, Shirai T, Taki S, Taniguchi T: CD8(+) T cell-mediated skin disease in mice lacking IRF-2, the transcriptional attenuator of interferon-alpha/beta signaling. Immunity 2000;13:643–655.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: July 01, 2004
Accepted: July 08, 2004
Published online: September 22, 2004
Issue release date: September 2004

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/IAA


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.