Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Rifaximin, a Poorly Absorbed Antibiotic: Pharmacology and Clinical Potential

Scarpignato C. · Pelosini I.

Author affiliations

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Sciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

Related Articles for ""

Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):36–66

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: April 11, 2005
Issue release date: April 2005

Number of Print Pages: 31
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 14

ISSN: 0009-3157 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9794 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CHE

Abstract

Rifaximin (4-deoxy-4′-methylpyrido[1′,2′-1,2]imidazo- [5,4-c]-rifamycin SV) is a synthetic antibiotic designed to modify the parent compound, rifamycin, in order to achieve low gastrointestinal (GI) absorption while retaining good antibacterial activity. Both experimental and clinical pharmacology clearly show that this compound is a nonsystemic antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antibacterial action covering Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, both aerobes and anaerobes. Being virtually nonabsorbed, its bioavailability within the GI tract is rather high with intraluminal and fecal drug concentrations that largely exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration values observed in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic organisms. The GI tract represents, therefore, the primary therapeutic target and GI infections the main indication. The appreciation of the pathogenic role of gut bacteria in several organic and functional GI diseases has increasingly broadened its clinical use, which is now extended to hepatic encephalopathy, small intestine bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory bowel disease and colonic diverticular disease. Potential indications include the irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, Clostridium difficile infection and bowel preparation before colorectal surgery. Because of its antibacterial activity against the microorganism and the lack of strains with primary resistance, some preliminary studies have explored the rifaximin potential for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Oral administration of this drug, by getting rid of enteric bacteria, could also be employed to achieve selective bowel decontamination in acute pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis (thus preventing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (lessening in that way NSAID enteropathy). This antibiotic has, therefore, little value outside the enteric area and this will minimize both antimicrobial resistance and systemic adverse events. Indeed, the drug proved to be safe in all patient populations, including young children. Although rifaximin has stood the test of time, it still attracts the attention of both basic scientists and clinicians. As a matter of fact, with the advancement of the knowledge on microbial-gut interactions in health and disease novel indications and new drug regimens are being explored. Besides widening the clinical use, the research on rifaximin is also focused on the synthesis of new derivatives and on the development of original formulations designed to expand the spectrum of its clinical use.

© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Vedantam G, Hecht DW: Antibiotics and anaerobes of gut origin. Curr Opin Microbiol 2003;6:457–561.
  2. Fantry L: Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2001;17:40–45.
    External Resources
  3. Stagg AJ, Hart AL, Knight SC, Kamm MA: Microbial-gut interactions in health and disease. Interactions between dendritic cells and bacteria in the regulation of intestinal immunity. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004;18:255–270.
  4. Lu L, Walker WA: Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(suppl):1124S–1130S.
  5. Brito GAC, Alcantara C, Carneiro-Filho BA, Guerrant RL: Pathophysiology and impact of bacterial and protozoal infections: New approaches to therapy. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):23–25.
  6. Procop GW: Gastrointestinal infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2001;15:1073–1108.
  7. Pithie AD, Ellis CJ: Antibiotics and the gut. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1989;3:321–332.
  8. Li E, Stanley SL Jr: The role of newer antibiotics in gastroenterology. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1992;21:613–629.
  9. Renner F, Mittermayer H, Hafner M, Schofl R: Prophylaxis with antibiotics in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Z Gastroenterol 2002;40:1–7.
    External Resources
  10. Norrby SR: Principles for targeted antibiotic use in urinary tract and enteric infections: A review with special emphasis on norfloxacin. Scand J Infect Dis 1986;18(suppl 48):7–19.
  11. Van den Hazel SJ, Speelman P, Tytgat GNJ, Dankert J, Van Leeuwen DJ: Role of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent cholangitis. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:279–286.
  12. Hart AL, Stagg AJ, Frame M, Graffner H, Glise H, Falk P, Kamm MA: Review article: The role of the gut flora in health and disease, and its modification as therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1383–1393.
  13. Guarner F, Malagelada JR: Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet 2003;361:512–519.
  14. Surawicz CM: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis: Are they less common with poorly absorbed antimicrobials? Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):81–89.
  15. DuPont HL: Community-acquired diarrheal disease in western countries: Applications of nonabsorbable oral antibiotic therapy. Adv Stud Med 2003;3(suppl A):S945–S950.
  16. Cheung RP, DiPiro JT: Vancomycin: An update. Pharmacotherapy 1986;6:153–169.
  17. Brogden RN, Peters DH: Teicoplanin: A reappraisal of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1994;47:823–854.
  18. Toscano WA Jr, Storm DR: Bacitracin. Pharmacol Ther 1982;16:199–210.
  19. Zimmerman MJ, Bak A, Sutherland LR: Review article: Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997;11:1003–1012.
  20. Surawicz CM, McFarland LV: Pseudomembranous colitis: Causes and cures. Digestion 1999;60:91–100.
  21. Poutanen SM, Simor AE: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. CMAJ 2004;171:51–58.
  22. McCafferty DG, Cudic P, Frankel BA, Barkallah S, Kruger RG, Li W: Chemistry and biology of the ramoplanin family of peptide antibiotics. Biopolymers 2002;66:261–284.
  23. Ramoplanin: A 16686, a 16686a, MDL 62198. Drugs R D 2002;3:61–64.
  24. Montecalvo MA: Ramoplanin: A novel antimicrobial agent with the potential to prevent vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection in high-risk patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;51(suppl 3):31–35.
  25. Simon HJ: Streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin. Pediatr Clin North Am 1968;15:73–83.
  26. Wright GD, Berghuis AM, Mobashery S: Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Structures, functions, and resistance. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;456:27–69.
  27. Berk DP, Chalmers T: Deafness complicating antibiotic therapy of hepatic encephalopathy. Ann Intern Med 1970;73:393–396.
  28. Lerner SA, Matz GJ: Aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Am J Otolaryngol 1980;1:169–179.
  29. Kavanagh KT, McCabe BF: Ototoxicity of oral neomycin and vancomycin. Laryngoscope 1983;93:649–653.
  30. Appel GB, Neu HC: The nephrotoxicity of antimicrobial agents (second of three parts). N Engl J Med 1977;296:722–728.
  31. Kunin CM, Chalmers TC, Leevy CM, Sebastyen SC, Lieber CS, Finland M: Absorption of orally administered neomycin and kanamycin with special reference to patients with severe hepatic and renal disease. N Engl J Med 1960;262:380–385.
  32. Stockwell M: Gentamicin ear drops and ototoxicity: Update. CMAJ 2001;164:93–94.
  33. Gillis JC, Brogden RN: Rifaximin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential in conditions mediated by gastrointestinal bacteria. Drugs 1995;49:467–484.
  34. Rifaximin label approved on 05/25/2004 (http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2004/21361_xifaxan_lbl.pdf).
  35. Lal R, Lal S: Recent trends in rifamycin research. Bioessays 1994;16:211–216.
  36. Burman WJ, Gallicano K, Peloquin C: Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the rifamycin antibiotics. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001;40:327–341.
  37. Brufani M, Cellai L, Marchi E, Segre A: The synthesis of 4-deoxypyrido[1′,2′-1,2]imidazo[5,4-c]rifamycin SV derivatives. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1984;37:1611–1622.
  38. Marchi E, Montecchi L, Venturini AP, Mascellani G, Brufani M, Cellai L: 4-Deoxypyrido[1′,2′:1,2]imidazo[5,4-c]rifamycin SV derivatives. A new series of semisynthetic rifamycins with high antibacterial activity and low gastroenteric absorption. J Med Chem 1985;28:960–963.
  39. De Angelis L: L-105. Drugs Future 1982;7:260–261.
  40. Brufani M, Cellai L, Cerrini S, Fedeli W, Marchi E, Segre A, Vaciago A: X-ray crystal structure of 4-deoxy-3′-bromopyrido[1′,2′-1,2]imidazo[5,4-c]rifamycin SV. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1984;37:1623–1627.
  41. Cellai L, Cerrini S, Segre A, Battistoni C, Cossu G, Mattogno G, Brufani M, Marchi E: A study of structure-activity relationships in 4-deoxypyrido[1′,2′-1,2]imidazo[5,4-c]rifamycin SV derivatives by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and 1H NMR. Mol Pharmacol 1985;27:103–108.
  42. Jiang ZD, Ke S, Palazzini E, Riopel L, Dupont H: In vitro activity and fecal concentration of rifaximin after oral administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:2205–2206.
  43. Jiang ZD, DuPont HL: Rifaximin: In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. A review. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):67–72.
  44. Malvisi Stracciari J, Venturini AP, Anfossi P, Marchi E, Stracciari GL: Sensitivity to rifaximin and rifampicin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from guinea pigs treated orally with rifaximin. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1987;6:82–84.
  45. Soro O, Pesce A, Raggi M, Debbia EA, Schito GC: Selection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis does not occur in the presence of low concentrations of rifaximin. Clin Microbiol Infect 1997;3:147–151.
  46. Hoover WW, Gerlach EH, Hoban DJ, Eliopoulos GM, Pfaller MA, Jones RN: Antimicrobial activity and spectrum of rifaximin, a new topical rifamycin derivative. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1993;16:111–118.
  47. Ripa S, Mignini F, Prenna M, Falcioni E: In vitro antibacterial activity of rifaximin against Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejunii and Yersinia spp. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13:483–488.
  48. Marchese A, Salerno A, Pesce A, Debbia EA, Schito GC: In vitro activity of rifaximin, metronidazole and vancomycin against Clostridium difficile and the rate of selection of spontaneously resistant mutants against representative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, including ammonia-producing species. Chemotherapy 2000;46:253–266.
  49. Gomi H, Jiang ZD, Adachi JA, Ashley D, Lowe B, Verenkar MP, Steffen R, DuPont HL: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial enteropathogens causing traveler’s diarrhea in four geographic regions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45:212–216.
  50. Sierra JM, Navia MM, Vargas M, Urassa H, Schellemberg D, Gascon J, Vila J, Ruiz J: In vitro activity of rifaximin against bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:904–905.
  51. Mignini F, Falcioni E, Prenna M, Santacroce F, Ripa S: In vitro antibacterial activity of rifaximin against Campylobacter pylori (Campylobacter pyloridis). Chemioterapia (Florence) 1989;1(suppl 4):222–223.
  52. Mégraud F, Bouffant F, Camou Juncas C: In vitro activity of rifaximin against Helicobacter pylori. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;13:184–186.
  53. Holton J, Vaira D, Menegatti M, Barbara L: The susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the rifamycin, rifaximin. J Antimicrob Chemother 1995;35:545–549.
  54. Quesada M, Sanfeliu I, Junquera F, Segura F, Calvet X: Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to rifaximin (in Spanish). Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;27:393–396.
  55. Scarpignato C, Pelosini I: Bismuth compounds for eradication of Helicobacter pylori: Pharmacology and safety. Progr Basic Clin Pharmacol 1999;11:87–126.
  56. Scarpignato C, Pelosini I: Antisecretory drugs for eradication of Helicobacter pylori: Antibacterial activity and synergism with antimicrobial agents. Progr Basic Clin Pharmacol 1999;11:136–180.
  57. Scrascia M, Forcillo M, Maimone F, Pazzani C: Susceptibility to rifaximin of Vibrio cholerae strains from different geographical areas. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:303–305.
  58. Lancini GC, Sartori G: Rifamycins LXI: In vivo inhibition of RNA synthesis of rifamycins. Experientia 1968;24:1105–1106.
  59. Dayan AD: Rifaximin (Normix®) Preclinical Expert Report. London, submitted to Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, 1997.
  60. Umezawa H, Mizuno S, Yamazaki H, Nitta K: Inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by rifamycins. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1968;21:234–236.
  61. Struelens MJ: How Europe is facing up to antibiotic resistance. Euro Surveill 2004;9:1 (http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v09n01/0901–221.asp).
  62. Hamilton-Miller JM: Antibiotic resistance from two perspectives: Man and microbe. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2004;23:209–212.
  63. Collignon PJ: 11: Antibiotic resistance. Med J Aust 2002;177:325–329.
  64. Gould IM: A review of the role of antibiotic policies in the control of antibiotic resistance. J Antimicrob Ther 1999;43:459–465.
  65. al-Orainey IO: Drug resistance in tuberculosis. J Chemother 1990;2:147–151.
    External Resources
  66. Spratt BG: Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alterations. Science 1994;264:388–393.
  67. Smith CA, Baker EN: Aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance by enzymatic deactivation. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 2002;2:143–160.
  68. Joyce M, Woods CW: Antibacterial susceptibility testing in the clinical laboratory. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2004;18:401–434.
  69. Smaill F: Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance testing: An overview. Can J Gastroenterol 2000;14:871–875.
  70. Gemmel GC, Lorian V: Effects of low concentrations of antibiotics on bacterial ultrastructure, virulence, and susceptibility to immunodefenses: Clinical significance; in Lorian V (ed): Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine, ed 4. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1996, pp 397–452.
  71. Ericsson CD, DuPont HL: Rifaximin in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):73–80.
  72. Berti T, Benoni G, Miglioli PA, Velo GP: Intestinal antibacterial activity of a new rifamycin derivative: Compound L-105. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1982;1(suppl 4):106A.
  73. Miglioli PA, Allerberger F, Calabrò GB, Gaion RM: Effects of daily oral administration of rifaximin and neomycin on faecal aerobic flora in rats. Pharmacol Res 2001;44:373–375.
  74. Venturini AP, Marchi E: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of L/105, a new topical intestinal rifamycin. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1986;5:257–262.
  75. Feldman WH: A scheme for numerical recording of tuberculous changes in experimentally infected guinea-pig. Annu Rev Turbec 1943;48:248.
  76. Lucchesi M, Marchi E, Venturini AP: Antimycobacterial activity of rifaximin (L/105) in experimental tuberculosis in the guinea pig. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1984;3:371–372.
  77. Zeneroli ML, Avallone R, Corsi L, Venturini I, Baraldi C, Baraldi M: Management of hepatic encephalopathy: Role of rifaximin. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):90–95.
  78. Di Stefano M, Corazza GR: Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and related symptoms by rifaximin. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):103–109.
  79. Papi C, Koch M, Capurso L: Management of diverticular disaease: Is there room for rifaximin? Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):110–114.
  80. Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Morselli C, Romagnoli R, Campieri M: Inflammatory bowel disease: Does rifaximin offer any promise? Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):96–102.
  81. Testa R, Eftimiadi C, Sukkar GS, De Leo C, Rovida S, Schito GC, Celle G: A non-absorbable rifamycin for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1985;11:387–392.
  82. De Leo C, Eftimiadi C, Schito GC: Rapid disappearance from the intestinal tract of bacteria resistant to rifaximin. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12:979–981.
  83. Lacour M, Zunder T, Huber R, Sander A, Daschner F, Frank U: The pathogenetic significance of intestinal Candida colonization – A systematic review from an interdisciplinary and environmental medical point of view. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2002;205:257–268.
  84. Amenta M, Dalle Nogare ER, Colomba C, Prestileo TS, Di Lorenzo F, Fundaro S, Colomba A, Ferrieri A: Intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected patients: Effect of rifaximin in Cryptosporidium parvum and Blastocystis hominis infections. J Chemother 1999;11:391–395.
  85. Gillespie SH: Evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Clinical and molecular perspective. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:267–274.
  86. Kapusnik JE, Parenti F, Sande MA: The use of rifampicin in staphylococcal infections – A review. J Antimicrob Chemother 1984;13(suppl C):61–66.
  87. Frieden TR, Sterling TR, Munsiff SS, Watt CJ, Dye C: Tuberculosis. Lancet 2003;362:887–899.
  88. DuPont HL, Jiang Z-D: Influence of rifaximin treatment on susceptibility of intestinal Gram-negative flora and enterococci. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004;10:1009–1011.
  89. Murray BE, Hodel-Christian SL: Bacterial resistance: Theoretical and practical considerations, mutations to antibiotic resistance, characterization of R plasmid, and detection of plasmid-specific genes; in Lorian V (ed): Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine, ed 4. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1996.
  90. Fietta A, Cascina A, Meloni F, Morosini M, Casali L, Bono L, Minoli L, Marone P: A 10-year survey of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Pavia and their drug resistance: A comparison with other Italian reports. J Chemother 2002;14:33–40.
  91. Girgis N, Sultan Y, Frenck RW Jr, El-Gendy A, Farid Z, Mateczun A: Azithromycin compared with rifampin for eradication of nasopharyngeal colonization by Neisseria meningitidis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17:816–819.
  92. Cuevas LE, Kazembe P, Mughogho GK, Tillotson GS, Hart CA: Eradication of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in rural Africa: A comparison of ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. J Infect Dis 1995;171:728–731.
  93. Schwartz B, Al-Tobaiqi A, Al-Ruwais A, Fontaine RE, A’ashi J, Hightower AW, Broome CV, Music SI: Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and rifampicin in eradicating pharyngeal carriage of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Lancet 1988;i:1239–1242.
  94. Cresti S, Giordano I, Donati E, Giaccherini R, Barberi A, Cellesi C: Prevalence and chemosusceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae in a population of central Italy. New Microbiol 2003;26:281–288.
  95. Cellai L, Colosimo M, Marchi E: Synthesis of 3H labeled rifamycin L 105. J Label Comp Radiopharm 1983;20:1287–1296.
  96. Kenny MT, Strates B: Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic rifampin. Drug Metab Rev 1981;12:159–218.
  97. Venturini AP: Pharmacokinetics of L/105, a new rifamycin, in rats and dogs, after oral administration. Chemotherapy (Basel) 1983;29:1–3.
  98. Venturini AP: L/105: Report on pharmacokinetics in rats, dogs after oral administration and adverse reactions. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1983;2(suppl 5):162–163.
  99. Cellai L, Colosimo M, Marchi E, Venturini AP, Zanolo G: Rifaximin (L/105), a new topical intestinal antibiotic: Pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 3H-rifaximin to rats. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1984;3:373–377.
  100. Breen KJ, Bryant RE, Levinson JD, Schemker S: Neomycin absorption in man: Studies of oral and enema administration and effect of intestinal ulceration. Ann Intern Med 1972;76:211–218.
  101. Venturini AP: Gastrointestinal absorption of rifaximin (L/105) in experimentally-induced colitis in the rat (in Italian). Riv Tossicol Sper Clin (Rome) 1986;16:119A.
  102. Descombe JJ, Dubourg D, Picard M, Palazzini E: Pharmacokinetic study of rifaximin after oral administration in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14:51–56.
  103. Rizzello F, Gionchetti P, Venturi A, Ferretti M, Peruzzo S, Raspanti X, Picard M, Canova N, Palazzini E, Campieri M: Rifaximin systemic absorption in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;54:91–93.
  104. Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Ferrieri A, Venturi A, Brignola C, Ferretti M, Peruzzo S, Miglioli M, Campieri M: Rifaximin in patients with moderate or severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid-treatment: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci 1999;44:1220–1221.
  105. Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, Ugolini F, Rossi M, Brigidi P, Johansson R, Ferrieri A, Poggioli G, Campieri M: Antibiotic combination therapy in patients with chronic, treatment-resistant pouchitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:713–718.
  106. Verardi S, Verardi V: Bile rifaximin concentration after oral administration in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Farmaco 1990;45:131–135.
  107. Acocella G: Clinical pharmacokinetics of rifampicin. Clin Pharmacokinet 1978;3:108–127.
  108. Williams R, James OF, Warnes TW, Morgan MY: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rifaximin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy: A double-blind, randomized, dose-finding multi-centre study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;12:203–208.
  109. Gillum JG, Israel DS, Polk RE: Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with antimicrobial agents. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993;25:450–482.
  110. Fry RF: Probing the world of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Mol Interv 2004;4:157–162.
  111. Dickinson BD, Altman RD, Nielsen NH, Sterling ML; Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association: Drug interactions between oral contraceptives and antibiotics. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:853–860.
  112. Yuan R, Flockhart DA, Balian JD: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of metabolism-based drug interactions with alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:1109–1125.
  113. Steffen R, Sack DA, Riopel L, Jiang ZD, Sturchler M, Ericsson CD, Lowe B, Waiyaki P, White M, DuPont HL: Therapy of travelers’ diarrhea with rifaximin on various continents. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:1073–1078.
  114. Husebye E: The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):1–22.
  115. Cuoco L, Montalto M, Jorizzo RA, Santarelli L, Arancio F, Cammarota G, Gasbarrini G: Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and oro-cecal transit in diabetics. Hepatogastroenterology 2002;49:1582–1586.
  116. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti G, Nasi G: Assessment of orocaecal transit time in different localization of Crohn’s disease and its possible influence on clinical response to therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;15:69–74.
  117. Palazzini E: Periodic Safety Update Report for Rixamin (January 1987–December 2003). Bologna, Alfa Wassermann, 2004.
  118. Venturini AP, Bertoli D, Marchi E: Transcutaneous absorption of a topical rifamycin preparation: Rifaximin (L/105). Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13:231–232.
  119. Berlo JA, Debruyne HJ, Gortz JP: A prospective study in healthy volunteers of the topical absorption of a 5% rifaximin cream. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20:205–208.
  120. Pelosini I, Scarpignato C: Rifaximin, a peculiar rifamycin derivative: Established and potential clinical use outside the gastrointestinal tract. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):122–130.
  121. Prasad ES, Wenman WM: In vitro activity of rifaximin, a topical rifamycin derivative, against Chlamydia trachomatis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1993;16:135–136.
  122. Lin HC: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA 2004;292:852–858.
  123. Nayak AK, Karnad DR, Abraham P, Mistry FP: Metronidazole relieves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: The confusion with so-called ‘chronic amebiasis’. Indian J Gastroenterol 1997;16:137–139.
  124. Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC: Normalization of lactulose breath testing correlates with symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:412–419.
  125. Madden JA, Hunter JO: A review of the role of the gut microflora in irritable bowel syndrome and the effects of probiotics. Br J Nutr 2002;88(suppl 1):S67–S72.
    External Resources
  126. Andrews PJ, Barnes P, Borody TJ: Chronic constipation reversed by restoration of bowel flora. A case and a hypothesis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1992;4:245–247.
    External Resources
  127. Celik AF, Tomlin J, Read NW: The effect of oral vancomycin on chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995;9:63–68.
  128. Bernay P, Houver A, Carraz M, Castel G: Study of fecal flora in constipated patients. Their modification by treatment with rovamycin-diphetarsone (in French). J Med Lyon 1967;48:847–854.
  129. Chabanon MR: Contribution to the clinical study of 6,753 in the treatment of chronic constipation (rovamycin-diphetarsone) (in French). J Med Lyon 1967;48:263–268.
  130. Bellomo-Brandao MA, Collares EF, da-Costa-Pinto EA: Use of erythromycin for the treatment of severe chronic constipation in children. Braz J Med Biol Res 2003;36:1391–1396.
  131. Sharma SS, Bhargava N, Mathur SC: Effect of oral erythromycin on colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. A pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:2446–2449.
  132. Scarpignato C, Pelosini I: Management of irritable bowel syndrome: Novel approaches to the pharmacology of gut motility. Can J Gastroenterol 1999;13(suppl A):50A–65A.
  133. Hamilton-Miller JMT: Probiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: A review of clinical trials. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2001;13:211–215.
    External Resources
  134. Ouwehand AC, Lagstrom H, Suomalainen T, Salminen S: Effect of probiotics on constipation, fecal azoreductase activity and fecal mucin content in the elderly. Ann Nutr Metab 2002;46:159–162.
  135. Koebnick C, Wagner I, Leitzmann P, Stern U, Zunft HJ: Probiotic beverage containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation. Can J Gastroenterol 2003;17:655–659.
  136. Singh VV, Toskes PP: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth: Presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2003;5:365–372.
  137. Bouhnik Y, Alain S, Attar A, Flourie B, Raskine L, Sanson-Le Pors MJ, Rambaud JC: Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1327–1331.
  138. Wilcox MH, Spencer RC: Clostridium difficile infection: Responses, relapses and re-infections. J Hosp Infect 1992;22:85–92.
  139. de Lalla F, Nicolin R, Rinaldi E, Scarpellini P, Rigoli R, Manfrin V, Tramarin A: Prospective study of oral teicoplanin versus oral vancomycin for therapy of pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992;36:2192–2196.
  140. Wenisch C, Parschalk B, Hasenhundl M, Hirschl AM, Graninger W: Comparison of vancomycin, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and fusidic acid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:813–818.
  141. Boero M, Berti E, Morgando A, Verme G: Treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis: Results of an open randomized study with rifaximin versus vancomycin. Microbiol Med (Milan) 1990;5:74–77.
  142. Sganga G: New perspectives in antibiotic prophylaxis for intra-abdominal surgery. J Hosp Infect 2002;50(suppl A):S17–S21.
  143. Bucher P, Mermillod B, Morel P, Soravia C: Does mechanical bowel preparation have a role in preventing postoperative complications in elective colorectal surgery? Swiss Med Wkly 2004;134:69–74.
  144. Barie PS: Surgical site infections: Epidemiology and prevention. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2002;3(suppl 1):S9–S21.
    External Resources
  145. Gorbach SL: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for appendectomy and colorectal surgery. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13(suppl 10):S815–S820.
  146. DiPiro JT: Short-term prophylaxis in clean-contaminated surgery. J Chemother 1999;11:551–555.
  147. Nichols RL, Choe EU, Weldon CB: Mechanical and antibacterial bowel preparation in colon and rectal surgery. Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):115–121.
  148. Gruttadauria G, La Barbera F, Cutaia G, Salanitri G: Prevention of infection in colonic surgery by rifaximin. A controlled, prospective, randomized trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1987;9:101–105.
  149. Verardi S, Verardi V, Fusillo M: Rifaximin effectiveness evaluation in the preparation of large intestine to surgery. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1986;8:267–270.
  150. Bresadola F, Intini S, Anania G, Noce L, Cedolini C, De Anna D, Ferrieri A: Chemotherapeutic prophylaxis in the preparation of the large intestine for surgical interventions: Rifaximin P.O. vs cephalosporin I.V. (in Italian). Ann Ital Chir 1992;63:201–207.
  151. Salcuni PE, Palazzini E: An evaluation of the therapeutic activity and tolerance of rifaximin, administered by stomach probe, in patients after colorectal surgery. Aggiornamenti Med Chir 1988;6:1–7.
  152. Esposito S: Is single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis sufficient for any surgical procedure? J Chemother 1999;11:556–564.
  153. Platt R: Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgery: Does it work? Should it be used if it does? New Horiz 1998;6(2 suppl):S53–S57.
  154. Cunha BA: Antibiotic side effects. Med Clin North Am 2001;85:149–185.
  155. Marshall BJ, Warren JR: Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1984;i:1311–1315.
  156. Leodolter A, Kulig M, Brasch H, Meyer-Sabellek W, Willich SN, Malfertheiner P: A meta-analysis comparing eradication, healing and relapse rates in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric or duodenal ulcer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15:1949–1958.
  157. Bazzoli F, BianchiPorro G, Bianchi MG, Molteni M, Pazzato P, Zagari RM: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Indications and regimens: An update. Dig Liver Dis 2002;34:70–83.
  158. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Infection with Helicobacter pylori; in Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori. Lyon, IARC, 1994, pp 177–202.
  159. Misiewicz JJ: Is the only good Helicobacter a dead Helicobacter? Helicobacter 1997;2(suppl 1):S89–S91.
    External Resources
  160. Graham DY: The only good Helicobacter pylori is a dead Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 1997;350:70–71.
  161. Vaira D, Vakil N, Rugge M, Gatta L, Ricci C, Menegatti M, Leandro G, Holton J, Russo VM, Miglioli M: Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on development of dyspeptic and reflux disease in healthy asymptomatic subjects. Gut 2003;52:1543–1547.
  162. Uemura N, Okamoto S, Yamamoto S, Matsumura N, Yamaguchi S, Yamakido M, Taniyama K, Sasaki N, Schlemper RJ: Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. N Engl J Med 2001;345:784–789.
  163. Scarpignato C: Towards the ideal regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication: The search continues. Dig Liver Dis 2004;36:243–247.
  164. Della Monica P, Lavagna A, Masoero G, Lombardo L, Crocella L, Pera A: Effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatments in a primary care setting in Italy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1269–1275.
  165. Gisbert JP, Pajares JM: Helicobacter pylori ‘rescue’ regimen when proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies fail. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1047–1057.
  166. Mégraud F, Lamouliatte H: The treatment of refractory Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:1333–1343.
  167. Parente F, Cucino C, Bianchi Porro G: Treatment options for patients with Helicobacter pylori infection resistant to one or more eradication attempts. Dig Liver Dis 2003;35:523–528.
  168. Pilotto A, Franceschi M, Rassu M, Furlan F, Scagnelli M: In vitro activity of rifabutin against strains of Helicobacter pylori resistant to metronidazole and clarithromycin. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:833–834.
  169. Heep M, Beck D, Bayerdorffer E, Lehn N: Rifampin and rifabutin resistance mechanism in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:1497–1499.
  170. Gisbert JP, Calvet X, Bujanda L, Marcos S, Gisbert JL, Pajares JM: ‘Rescue’ therapy with rifabutin after multiple Helicobacter pylori treatment failures. Helicobacter 2003;8:90–94.
  171. Wong WM, Gu Q, Lam SK, Fung FM, Lai KC, Hu WH, Yee YK, Chan CK, Xia HH, Yuen MF, Wong BC: Randomized controlled study of rabeprazole, levofloxacin and rifabutin triple therapy vs. quadruple therapy as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:553–560.
  172. Perri F, Festa V, Clemente R, Quitadamo M, Andriulli A: Rifabutin-based ‘rescue therapy’ for Helicobacter pylori infected patients after failure of standard regimens. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:311–316.
  173. Zullo A, Hassan C, Campo S, Morini S: Evolving therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. Exp Opin Ther Patents 2004;14:1453–1464.
  174. Pretolani S, Bonvicini F, Brocci E, Cilla D, Pasini P, Baldini L, Epifanio G, Miglio F, Gasbarrini G: Effect of rifaximin, a new non-absorbed antibiotic, in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1993;56:144A.
  175. De Giorgio R, Stanghellini V, Barbara G, Guerrini S, Ferrieri A, Corinaldesi R: Rifaximin and Helicobacter pylori eradication. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1997;1:105–110.
  176. Dell’Anna A, Azzarone P, Ferrieri A: A randomized openly comparative study between rifaximin suspension versus rifaximin pills for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1999;3:105–110.
  177. Atherton JC, Washington N, Bracewell MA, Sutton LJ, Greaves JL, Perkins AC, Hawkey CJ, Spiller RC: Scintigraphic assessment of the intragastric distribution and gastric emptying of an encapsulated drug: The effect of feeding and of a proton pump inhibitor. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1994;8:489–494.
  178. Gottfries J, Svenheden A, Alpstein M, Bake B, Larsson A, Idstrom JP: Gastrointestinal transit of amoxicillin-modified release tablets and a placebo tablet including pharmacokinetic assessments of amoxicillin. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996;31:49–53.
  179. Grant R, Grossman MI, Ivy AC: Histological changes in the gastric mucosa during digestion and their relationship to mucosal growth. Gastroenterology 1953;25:218–231.
  180. Butturini G, Salvia R, Bettini R, Falconi M, Pederzoli P, Bassi C: Infection prevention in necrotizing pancreatitis: An old challenge with new perspectives. J Hosp Infect 2001;49:4–8.
  181. Isenmann R, Beger HG: Bacterial infection of pancreatic necrosis: Role of bacterial translocation, impact of antibiotic treatment. Pancreatology 2001;1:79–89.
  182. Dervenis C, Smailis D, Hatzitheoklitos E: Bacterial translocation and its prevention in acute pancreatitis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2003;10:415–418.
  183. Berg RD: Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;473:11–30.
  184. Juvonen PO, Alhava EM, Takala JA: Gut permeability in patients with acute pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000;35:1314–1318.
  185. Sharma VK, Howden CW: Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: A meta-analysis. Pancreas 2001;22:28–31.
  186. Banks PA: Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:377–386.
  187. Glazer G, Mann D: United Kingdom guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis. Gut 1998;42:S1–S13.
    External Resources
  188. Dervenis C, Johnson CD, Bassi C, Bradley EL 3rd, Imrie CW, McMahon MJ, Modlin I: Diagnosis, objective assessment of severity, and the management of acute pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol 1999;25:195–210.
  189. Rünzi M, Layer P, Büchler MW, Beger HG, Ell C, Fölsch UR, Goebell H, Hopt UT, Lankisch PG, Schmidt WE, Schmiegel W, Schölmerich J: The therapy of acute pancreatitis. General guidelines. Working group of the Society for Scientific-Medical Specialties (in German). Z Gastroenterol 2000;38:571–580.
  190. Société Nationale Francaise de Gastro-Entérologie: French Consensus Conference on Acute Pancreatitis: Conclusions and recommendations. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:S1–S13.
  191. Uhl W, Warshaw A, Imrie CW, Bassi C, McKay CJ, Lankisch PG, Carter RC, DiMagno EP, Banks PA, Whitcomb DC, Dervenis C, Ulrich CD, Satake K, Ghaneh P, Hartwig W, Werner J, McEntee G, Neoptolemos JP, Büchler MW: IAP-guidelines for the surgical management of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology 2002;2:565–573.
  192. R, Runzi M, Kron M, Kahl S, Kraus D, Jung N, Maier L, Malfertheiner P, Goebell H, Beger HG; German Antibiotics in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Study Group: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis: A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Gastroenterology 2004;126:997–1004.
  193. Gianotti L, Munda R, Gennari R, Pyles R, Alexander JW: Effect of different regimens of gut decontamination on bacterial translocation and mortality in experimental acute pancreatitis. Eur J Surg 1995;161:85–92.
  194. de las Heras G, Forcelledo JL, Gutierrez JM, Calvo J, Obaya S, Fernandez Fernandez F, Mayorga M, Aguero J, Pons Romero F: Selective intestinal bacterial decontamination in experimental acute pancreatitis (in Spanish). Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;23:461–465.
  195. Luiten EJ, Hop WC, Lange JF, Bruining HA: Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1995;222:57–65.
  196. Marotta F, Geng TC, Wu CC, Barbi G: Bacterial translocation in the course of acute pancreatitis: Beneficial role of nonabsorbable antibiotics and lactitol enemas. Digestion 1996;57:446–452.
  197. Fiorucci S, Distrutti E, Mencarelli A, Barbanti M, Palazzini E, Morelli A: Inhibition of intestinal bacterial translocation with rifaximin modulates lamina propria monocytic cells reactivity and protects against inflammation in a rodent model of colitis. Digestion 2002;66:246–256.
  198. Wang X, Gong Z, Wu K, Wang B, Yuang Y: Gastrointestinal dysmotility in patients with acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;18:57–62.
  199. Van Felius ID, Akkermans LM, Bosscha K, Verheem A, Harmsen W, Visser MR, Gooszen HG: Interdigestive small bowel motility and duodenal bacterial overgrowth in experimental acute pancreatitis. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2003;15:267–276.
  200. Casellas F, Guarner L, Vaquero E, Antolin M, de Gracia X, Malagelada JR: Hydrogen breath test with glucose in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreas 1998;16:481–486.
  201. Trespi E, Ferrieri A: Intestinal bacterial overgrowth during chronic pancreatitis. Curr Med Res Opin 1999;15:47–52.
  202. Mowat C, Stanley AJ: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis – Diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15:1851–1859.
  203. Anand BS: Drug treatment of the complications of cirrhosis in the older adult. Drugs Aging 2001;18:575–585.
  204. Garcia-Tsao G: Current management of the complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: Variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 2001;120:726–748.
  205. Navasa M, Rodes J: Bacterial infections in cirrhosis. Liver Int 2004;24:277–280.
  206. Fernandez J, Bauer TM, Navasa M, Rodes J: Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Baillières Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2000;14:975–990.
  207. Sader HS, Runyon BA, Erwin ME, Jones RN: Antimicrobial activity of 11 newer and investigational drugs tested against aerobic isolates from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1995;21:105–110.
  208. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, Piddock LJ, Planas R, Bernard B, Inadomi JM: Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A consensus document. J Hepatol 2000;32:142–153.
  209. Soares-Weiser K, Brezis M, Leibovici L: Antibiotics for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;3:CD002232.
  210. Soares-Weiser K, Paul M, Brezis M, Leibovici M: Antibiotic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. BMJ 2002;324:100–102.
  211. Guarner C, Soriano G: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Semin Liver Dis 1997;17:203–217.
  212. Garcia-Tsao G, Wiest R: Gut microflora in the pathogenesis of the complications of cirrhosis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004;18:353–372.
  213. Guarner C, Runyon BA, Young S, Heck M, Sheikh MY: Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation in an experimental model of cirrhosis in rats. J Hepatol 1997;26:1372–1378.
  214. Runyon BA, Squier SU, Borzio M: Translocation of gut bacteria in rats with cirrhosis to mesenteric lymph nodes partially explains the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Hepatol 1994;21:792–796.
  215. Cirera I, Bauer TM, Navasa M, Vila J, Grande L, Taura P, Fuster J, Garcia-Valdecasas JC, Lacy A, Suarez MJ, Rimola A, Rodes J: Bacterial translocation of enteric organisms in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001;34:32–37.
  216. Runyon BA: Patients with deficient ascitic fluid opsonic activity are predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1988;8:632–635.
  217. Morencos FC, de las Heras G, Ramos M, Lopez-Arias MJ, Ledesma F, Pons F: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:1252–1256.
  218. Chang CS, Chen GH, Lien HC, Yeh HZ: Small intestine dysmotility and bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1998;28:1187–1190.
  219. Runyon BA, Borzio M, Young S, Squier SU, Guarner C, Runyon MA: Effect of selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin on spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, translocation, and survival in an animal model of cirrhosis. Hepatology 1995;21:1719–1724.
  220. Rasaratnam B, Kaye D, Jennings G, Dudley F, Chin-Dusting J: The effect of selective intestinal decontamination on the hyperdynamic circulatory state in cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:186–193.
  221. Guarner C, Runyon BA, Heck M, Young S, Sheikh MY: Effect of long-term trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on ascites formation, bacterial translocation, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and survival in cirrhotic rats. Dig Dis Sci 1999;44:1957–1962.
  222. Gines P, Navasa M: Antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: How and whom? J Hepatol 1998;29:490–494.
  223. Thomson KS: Minimizing quinolone resistance: Are the new agents more or less likely to cause resistance? J Antimicrob Chemother 2000;45:719–723.
  224. Trespi E, Colla C, Belloni G, Pollino MG, Magnani L, Panizza P, Venturini A: Efficacy of rifaximin as a prophylactic agent for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in alcoholic patients. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;31:534A.
  225. Scarpignato C, Bjarnason I, Bretagne J-F, De Pouvourville G, García Rodríquez LA, Goldstein JL, Müller PA, Simon B; Working Team Report: Towards a GI safer antiinflammatory therapy. Gastroenterol Int 1999;12:186–215.
  226. Henry DA: Side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Baillières Clin Rheumatol 1988;2:425–454.
  227. Bjarnason I, Hayllar J, Macherson AJ, Russell AS: Side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the small and large intestine in humans. Gastroenterology 1993;104:1832–1847.
  228. Aabakken L: Small-bowel side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;11:383–388.
  229. Davies NM, Saleh JY: Detection and prevention of NSAID enteropathy. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2000;3:137–155.
  230. Lanas A, Panes J, Pique JM: Clinical implications of COX-1 and/or COX-2 inhibition for the distal gastrointestinal tract. Curr Pharm Des 2003;9:2253–2266.
  231. Rossini FP, Pennazio M: Small-bowel endoscopy. Endoscopy 2002;34:13–20.
  232. Chutkan R, Toubia N: Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastrointestinal tract: Diagnosis by wireless capsule endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2004;14:67–85.
  233. Reuter BK, Davies NM, Wallace JL: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy in rats: Role of permeability, bacteria, and enterohepatic circulation. Gastroenterology 1997;112:109–117.
  234. Banerjee AK, Peters TJ: Experimental non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy in the rat: Similarities to inflammatory bowel disease and effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitors. Gut 1990;31:1358–1364.
  235. Davies NM, Jamali F: Pharmacological protection of NSAID-induced intestinal permeability in the rat: Effect of tempo and metronidazole as potential free radical scavengers. Hum Exp Toxicol 1997;16:345–349.
  236. Koga H, Aoyagi K, Matsumoto T, Iida M, Fujishima M: Experimental enteropathy in athymic and euthymic rats: Synergistic role of lipopolysaccharide and indomethacin. Am J Physiol 1999;276:G576–G582.
  237. Kinouchi T, Kataoka K, Bing SR, Nakayama H, Uejima M, Shimono K, Kuwahara T, Akimoto S, Hiraoka I, Ohnishi Y: Culture supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis repress ileal ulcer formation in rats treated with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug by suppressing unbalanced growth of aerobic bacteria and lipid peroxidation. Microbiol Immunol 1998;42:347–355.
  238. Hagiwara M, Kataoka K, Arimochi H, Kuwahara T, Ohnishi Y: Role of unbalanced growth of Gram-negative bacteria in ileal ulcer formation in rats treated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. J Med Invest 2004;51:43–51.
  239. Robert A, Asano T: Resistance of germfree rats to indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions. Prostaglandins 1977;14:333–341.
  240. Freeman CD, Klutman NE, Lamp KC: Metronidazole. A therapeutic review and update. Drugs 1997;54:679–708.
  241. Davies GR, Wilkie ME, Rampton DS: Effects of metronidazole and misoprostol on indomethacin-induced changes in intestinal permeability. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:417–425.
  242. Bjarnason I, Hayllar J, Smethurst P, Price A, Gumpel MJ: Metronidazole reduces intestinal inflammation and blood loss in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced enteropathy. Gut 1992;33:1204–1208.
  243. Leite AZ, Sipahi AM, Damiao AO, Coelho AM, Garcez AT, Machado MC, Buchpiguel CA, Lopasso FP, Lordello ML, Agostinho CL, Laudanna AA: Protective effect of metronidazole on uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation induced by NSAID: A new mechanism. Gut 2001;48:163–167.
  244. Ganrot-Norlin K, Stalhandske T, Karlstrom R: Lack of antiinflammatory activity of metronidazole. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1981;49:130–133.
  245. Riordan SM, McIver CJ, Thomas DH, Duncombe VM, Bolin TD, Thomas MC: Luminal bacteria and small-intestinal permeability. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997;32:556–563.
  246. Anthony A, Pounder RE, Dhillon AP, Wakefield AJ: Similarities between ileal Crohn’s disease and indomethacin experimental jejunal ulcers in the rat. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:241–245.
  247. Del Soldato P, Foschi D, Varin L, Daniotti S: Indomethacin-induced intestinal ulcers in rats: Effects of salicylazosulfapyridine and dexamethasone. Agents Actions 1985;16:393–396.
  248. Matsumoto T, Iida M, Nakamura S, Hizawa K, Kuroki F, Fujishima M: Preventive effect of immunosuppressive agents against indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulcers in rats. Dig Dis Sci 1994;39:787–795.
  249. Linskens RK, Huijsdens XW, Savelkoul PH, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Meuwissen SG: The bacterial flora in inflammatory bowel disease: Current insights in pathogenesis and the influence of antibiotics and probiotics. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001;36(suppl 234):29–40.
    External Resources
  250. Tamboli CP, Neut C, Desreumaux P, Colombel JF: Dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2004;53:1–4.
  251. Sartor RB: Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: Antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. Gastroenterology 2004;126:1620–1633.
  252. Wild GE: The role of antibiotics in the management of Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004;10:321–323.
  253. Bendesky A, Menendez D, Ostrosky-Wegman P: Is metronidazole carcinogenic? Mutat Res 2002;511:133–144.
  254. Kadam UT, Jordan K, Croft PR: Clinical comorbidity in patients with osteoarthritis: A case-control study of general practice consulters in England and Wales. Ann Rheum Dis 2004;63:408–414.
  255. Borelli G, Bertoli D: Acute, subacute, chronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies of rifaximin (L/105) in rats. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1986;5:263–267.
  256. Mackie RI, White BA, Bryant MP: Lipid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems. Crit Rev Microbiol 1991;17:449–479.
  257. Kramer PJ: Genetic toxicology. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998;50:395–405.
  258. Mortelmans K, Zeiger E: The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutat Res 2000;455:29–60.
  259. Murthy MS: Induction of gene conversion in diploid yeast by chemicals: Correlation with mutagenic action and its relevance in genotoxicity screening. Mutat Res 1979;64:1–17.
  260. Bertoli D, Borelli G: Teratogenic action of Rifaximin in the rat and rabbit and its effect on perinatal development in the rat. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1984;60:1079–1085.
  261. Bertoli D, Borelli G: Fertility study of rifaximin (L/105) in rats. Chemioterapia (Florence) 1986;5:204–207.
  262. Burns LM: Rifaximin: Study of Effects on Embryo-Fetal Toxicity in the Rabbit by Oral Gavage Administration. Final Report. Eye, Huntington Life Sciences, 1998.
  263. Physicians’ Desk Reference: Use-in-Pregnancy Ratings, ed 58. Montvale, Medical Economics Company, 2004.
  264. Fulcher SM: Rifaximin Combined Study of Effects on Fertility and Embryo-Fetal Toxicity in CD Rats by Oral Gavage Administration. Eye, Huntington Life Sciences, 2000.
  265. Wu G, Bazer FW, Cudd TA, Meininger CJ, Spencer TE: Maternal nutrition and fetal development. J Nutr 2004;134:2169–2172.
  266. Hamed MR, al-Assy YS, Ezzeldin E: Influence of protein malnutrition on teratogenicity of acetylsalicylic acid in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 1994;13:83–88.
  267. Meyers D: Rifaximin: Study of Effect on Embryo-Fetal Toxicity in the Rabbit by Oral Gavage Administration. Report Amendment 1. Eye, Huntington Life Sciences, 2001.
  268. European Commission – Enterprise and Industry DG – Pharmaceutical Unit: Detection of Toxicity to Reproduction for Medicinal Products Including Toxicity to Male Fertility (Directive 75/318/EEG – June 1996). Available at: http://pharmacos.eudra.org/F2/eudralex/vol-3/pdfs-en/3bs4aen.pdf.
  269. Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M, Olsen J, Sorensen HT: A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5:564–568.
  270. Ito S, Lee A: Drug excretion into breast milk – Overview. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2003;55:617–627.
  271. Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M, Olsen J, Sorensen HT: A teratological study of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment during pregnancy. Scand J Infect Dis 2000;32:309–313.
  272. DuPont HL, Ericsson CD: Prevention and treatment of traveler’s diarrhea. New Engl J Med 1993;328:1821–1827.
  273. Martini S, Bonechi C, Corbini G, Donati A, Rossi C: Solution structure of rifaximin and its synthetic derivative rifaximin OR determined by experimental NMR and theoretical simulation methods. Bioorg Med Chem 2004;12:2163–2172.
  274. Wanlian Pharmaceutical Co.: Rifaximin Soft Capsule Composition. Patent No. CN1451386, 2002.
  275. Dalseno R, Chiarelli P: Controlled and Continued Delivery of Rifaximin and/or Other Substances. Patent No. WO200441240, 2003.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: April 11, 2005
Issue release date: April 2005

Number of Print Pages: 31
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 14

ISSN: 0009-3157 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9794 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.