Nuclear and Chromosome Organization
Novel phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 11 that temporally correlates with condensation of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in plant cellsHouben A.a · Demidov D.a · Rutten T.a · Scheidtmann K.H.b
aInstitute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben; bInstitute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)
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A novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation site in histone H3 at threonine 11 has been described for mammalian cells. This modification is restricted to the centromeric region while phosphorylation at the classical H3 sites, Ser10 and Ser28 occurs along the entire chromosomal arms. Using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies we found that phosphorylation at threonine 11 occurs also in plant cells, during mitosis as well as meiosis. However, in contrast to animal cells, ph(Thr11)H3 was distributed along the entire length of condensed chromosomes, whereas H3 phosphorylated at Ser10 and Ser28 appeared to be restricted to centromeric/pericentromeric chromatin. Phosphorylation at Thr11 started in prophase and ended in telophase, it correlated with the condensation of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes and was independent of the distribution of late replicating heterochromatin and Giemsa-banding positive regions. Interestingly, treatment of cells with the phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin revealed a high level of Thr11 phosphorylation in interphase cells, in this case particularly in pericentromeric regions. These data show that histone modifications are highly dynamic. Moreover, animal and plant organisms may have evolved individual histone codes.
© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
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