Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Research Article

Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Frequency and Relationship with Duration and Severity of the Disease

Piccininni M.a · Di Carlo A.b · Baldereschi M.b · Zaccara G.a · Inzitari D.c

Author affiliations

aNeurology Unit, Ospedale S.M. Nuova, bInstitute of Neurosciences, ILSA Study, Italian National Research Council, and cDepartment of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Related Articles for ""

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005;19:276–281

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: October 30, 2004
Published online: April 29, 2005
Issue release date: May 2005

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DEM

Abstract

The occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is currently recognized as an important aspect of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency and severity of BPSD with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory across the various degrees and phases of the disease in 50 consecutive AD outpatients. Apathy, aberrant motor activity, dysphoria and anxiety were the symptoms most frequently reported by the caregivers, ranging in the whole study sample from 46 to 74%. A clear trend towards increasing frequency with the severity of disease was found for delusions, hallucinations and aberrant motor activity. A major effect of the duration of the disease was found in the probability of developing hallucinations and aberrant motor activity. Apart from hallucinations, all BPSD were present starting from a mild degree of dementia. A better understanding of the global spectrum of BPSD in AD is warranted in order to improve the allocation of health resources toward the treatment of dementia.

© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Fairburn CG, Hope RA: Changes in behaviour in dementia: A neglected area. Br J Psychiatry 1988;152:406–407.
  2. Devanand DP, Brockington CD, Moody BJ, Brown RP, Mayeux R, Endicott J, Sackeim HA: Behaviour syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease. Int Psychogeriatr 1992;4(suppl 2):161–184.
    External Resources
  3. Reisberg B, Auer SR, Monteiro IM: Behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease (BEHAVE-AD) Rating Scale. Int Psychogeriatr 1996;8:301–308.
  4. Zaccara G, Piccininni M: I disturbi del comportamento. Neurol Sci 2001;(suppl 22):S503–S507.
  5. Bozeat S, Gregory CA, Ralph MA, Hodges JR: Which neuropsychiatric and behavioural features distinguish frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:178–186.
  6. Hargrave R, Geck LC, Reed B, Mungas D: Affective behavioural disturbances in Alzheimer’s disease and ischemic vascular disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:41–46.
  7. Teri L, Larson EB, Reifler BV: Behavioral disturbances in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:1–6.
  8. Lesser IM, Miller BL, Boone KB: Psychosis as the first manifestation of degenerative dementia. Bull Clin Neurosci 1989;54:59–63.
  9. Rubin EH, Kinscherf DA: Psychopathology of very mild dementia of the Alzheimer type. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:1017–1021.
  10. Drevets WC, Rubin EH: Psychotic symptoms and the longitudinal course of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25:39–48.
  11. Rosen J, Zubenko GS: Emergence of psychosis and depression in the longitudinal evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 1991;29:224–232.
  12. Mangone CA, Sanguinetti RM, Baumann PD, Gonzalez RC, Pereyra S, Bozzola FG, Gorelick PB, Sica RE: Influence of feelings of burden on the caregiver’s perception of the patient’s functional status. Dementia 1993;4:287–293.
  13. Ferris SH, Steinberg G, Shulman E, Kahn R, Reisberg B: Institutionalization of Alzheimer’s disease patients: Reducing precipitating factors through family counseling. Home Health Care Serv Q 1987;8:23–51.
  14. Hinchliffe AD, Hyman IL, Blizard B: The impact on carers of behavioural difficulties in dementia: A pilot study on management. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1992;7:579–583.
    External Resources
  15. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology1984;34:939–944.
  16. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, et al: Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): Clinical report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996;47:1113–1124.
  17. Bracco L, Amaducci L, Pedone D, Bino G, Lazzaro MP, Carella F, D’Antona R, Gallato R, Denes G: Italian Multicentre Study on dementia (SMID): A neuropsychological test battery for assessing Alzheimer’s disease. J Psychiatr Res 1990;24(3):213–226.
  18. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, DeLeon MJ, Crook T: The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:1136–1139.
  19. Bracco L, Tiezzi A, Lippi A, Amaducci L: Staging of mental impairment by means of discriminant analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1986;1:99–106.
    External Resources
  20. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: Comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44:2308–2314.
  21. Binetti G, Mega MS, Magni E, Padovani A, Rozzini L, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M, Cummings JL: Behavioral disorders in Alzheimer disease: A transcultural perspective. Arch Neurol 1998;55:539–544.
  22. Norusis MJ: SPSS for Windows. Base System User’s Guide and Advanced Statistics. Chicago, SPSS, 1993.
  23. Wragg RE, Jeste DV: Overview of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:577–587.
  24. Teri L, Larson EB, Reifler BV: Behavioral disturbance in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:1–6.
  25. Lyketsos CG, Steinberg M, Tschanz JT, Norton MC, Steffens DC, Breitner JCS: Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: Findings from the Cache County Study on memory in aging. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:708–714.
  26. Lyketsos CG, Lopez O, Jones B, Fitzpatrick AL, Breitner J, DeKosky S: Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. JAMA 2002;288:1475–1483.
  27. Mega MS, Cummings JL, Fiorello T, Gornbein J: The spectrum of behavioral changes in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1996;46:130–135.
  28. Cummings JL, Back C: The cholinergic hypothesis of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;6(suppl 1):S64–S78.
  29. Merriam AE, Aronson MK, Gaston P, Wey SL, Katz I: The psychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:7–12.
  30. Cooper JK, Mungas D, Weiler PG: Relationship of cognitive status and abnormal behaviors in Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:867–870.
  31. Chen JC, Borson S, Scanlan JM: Stage-specific prevalence of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease in a multi-ethnic community sample. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;8:123–133.
  32. Forsell Y, Jorm AF, Winblad B: Variation in psychiatric and behavioural symptoms at different stages of dementia: Data from physicians’ examinations and informants’ reports. Dementia 1993;4:282–286.
  33. Cummings JL, Miller B, Hill MA, Neshkes R: Neuropsychiatric aspects of multi-infarct dementia and dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch Neurol 1987;44:389–393.
  34. Teri L, Larson EB, Reifler BV: Behavioral disturbance in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:1–6.
  35. Binetti G, Bianchetti A, Padovani A, Lenzi G, De Leo D, Trabucchi M: Delusions in Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Acta Neurol Scand 1993;88:5–9.
  36. Doody RS, Massman P, Mahurin R, Law S: Positive and negative neuropsychiatric features in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995;7:54–60.
  37. Lopez OL, Brenner R, Becker J, Ulrich RF, Boller F, Dekosky ST: EEG spectral abnormalities and psychosis as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in probable Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1997;48:1521–1555.
  38. Drevets WC, Rubin EH: Psychotic symptoms and the longitudinal course of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25:39–48.
  39. Burns A, Jacoby R, Levy R: Psychiatric phenomena in Alzheimer’s disease. Br J Psychiatry 1990;157:72–94.
  40. Hirono N, Mori H, Yasuda M, Ikejiri Y, Imanura T, Shimomura T, Ikeda M, Hashimoto M, Yamashita H: Factors associated with psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:648–652.
  41. Migliorelli R, Teson A, Sabe L, Petracchi M, Leiguarda R, Starkstein SE: Prevalence and correlates of dysthymia and major depression among patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:37–44.
  42. Skoog I: The prevalence of psychotic, depressive and anxiety syndromes in demented and non-demented 85-year-olds. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1993;8:247–253.
    External Resources
  43. Kloszewska I: Incidence and relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;13:785–792.
  44. Reisberg B, Franssen E, Sclan SG, Kluger A, Ferris SH: Stage specific incidence of potentially remediable behavioural symptoms in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: A study of 120 patients using the BEHAVE-AD. Bull Clin Neurosci 1989;54:95–112.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: October 30, 2004
Published online: April 29, 2005
Issue release date: May 2005

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.