Retrotransposable Elements, Retrotransposition and Genome Evolution
LINEs, SINEs and processed pseudogenes: parasitic strategies for genome modelingDewannieux M. · Heidmann T.
Unité des Rétrovirus Endogènes et Eléments Rétroïdes des Eucaryotes Supérieurs, UMR 8122 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)
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Two major classes of retrotransposons have invaded eukaryotic genomes: the LTR retrotransposons closely resembling the proviral integrated form of infectious retroviruses, and the non-LTR retrotransposons including the widespread, autonomous LINE elements. Here, we review the modeling effects of the latter class of elements, which are the most active in humans, and whose enzymatic machinery is subverted to generate a large series of “secondary” retroelements. These include the processed pseudogenes, naturally present in all eukaryotic genomes possessing non-LTR retroelements, and the very successful SINE elements such as the human Alu sequences which have evolved refined parasitic strategies to efficiently bypass the original “protectionist” cis-preference of LINEs for their own retrotransposition.
© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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