Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Regional Specialization in Pyramidal Cell Structure in the Visual Cortex of the Galago: An Intracellular Injection Study of Striate and Extrastriate Areas with Comparative Notes on New World and Old World Monkeys

Elston G.N.a · Elston A.a · Kaas J.H.b · Casagrande V.c

Author affiliations

aVision, Touch and Hearing Research Centre, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia; Departments of bPsychology and cCell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., USA

Related Articles for ""

Brain Behav Evol 2005;66:10–21

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 9.00 *
EUR 8.00 *
USD 9.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: October 20, 2004
Accepted: December 20, 2004
Published online: April 25, 2005
Issue release date: May 2005

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

Recent studies have revealed marked differences in the basal dendritic structure of layer III pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex of adult simian primates. In particular, there is a consistent trend for pyramidal cells of increasing complexity with anterior progression through occipitotemporal cortical visual areas. These differences in pyramidal cell structure, and their systematic nature, are believed to be important for specialized aspects of visual processing within, and between, cortical areas. However, it remains unknown whether this regional specialization in the pyramidal cell phenotype is unique to simians, is unique to primates in general or is widespread amongst mammalian species. In the present study we investigated pyramidal cell structure in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnetti). We found, as in simians, that the basal dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells differed between cortical areas. More specifically, pyramidal cells became progressively more spinous through the primary (V1), second (V2), dorsolateral (DL) and inferotemporal (IT) visual areas. Moreover, pyramidal neurons in V1 of the galago are remarkably similar to those in other primate species, in spite of large differences in the sizes of this area. In contrast, pyramidal cells in inferotemporal cortex are quite variable among primate species. These data suggest that regional specialization in pyramidal cell phenotype was a likely feature of cortex in a common ancestor of simian and prosimian primates, but the degree of specialization varies between species.

© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Allman JM, Kaas JH (1971) Representation of the visual field in striate and adjoining cortex of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Brain Res 35:89–106.
  2. Allman JM, Kaas JH (1974) A crescent-shaped cortical visual area surrounding the middle temporal area (MT) in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Brain Res 81:199–213.
  3. Allman JM, Campbell CBG, McGuinness E (1979) The dorsal third tier area in Galago senegalensis. Brain Res 179:355–361.
  4. Allman JM, Kaas JH, Lane RH (1973) The middle temporal area (MT) in the bushbaby, Galago senegalensis. Brain Res 57:197–202.
  5. Baker JF, Petersen SE, Newsome WT, Allman JM (1981) Visual response properties of neurones in four extrastriate visual areas of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). A quantitative comparison of medial, dorsomedial, dorsolateral and middle temporal areas. J Neurophysiol 45:397–416.
  6. Beck PD, Kaas JH (1998) Cortical connections of the dorsomedial visual area in prosimian primates. J Comp Neurol 398:162–178.
  7. Boussaoud D, Desimone R, Ungerleider LG (1991) Visual topography of area TEO in the macaque. J Comp Neurol 306:554–575.
  8. Brown VJ, Bowman EM (2002) Rodent models of prefrontal cortical function. Trends Neurosci 25:340–343.
  9. Burkhalter A, van Essen DC (1986) Processing of color, form and disparity information in visual areas VP and V2 of ventral extrastriate cortex in the macaque monkey. J Neurosci 6:2327–2351.
  10. Casagrande VA, DeBruyn EJ (1982) The galago visual system: aspects of normal organization and developmental plasticity. In: The Lesser Bushbaby (Galago) an Animal Model: Selected Topics (Haines PC, ed) pp 138–168. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  11. Casagrande VA, Kaas JH (1994) The afferent, intrinsic and efferent connections of primary visual cortex in primates. In: Cerebral Cortex Vol. 10: Primary Visual Cortex in Primates (Peters A, Rockland KS, eds) pp 201–259. New York: Plenum Press.
  12. Collins CE, Stepniewska I, Kaas JH (2001) Topographic patterns of V2 cortical connections in a prosimian primate (Galago garnetti). J Comp Neurol 231:155–167.
  13. Colonnier M (1968) Synaptic patterns on different cell types in the different laminae of the cat visual cortex. Brain Res 9:268–287.
  14. Cusick CG, Kaas JH (1988) Surface view patterns of intrinsic and extrinsic cortical connections of area 17 in a prosimian primate. Brain Res 458:383–388.
  15. DeFelipe J, Conti F, Van Eyck SL, Manzoni T (1988) Demonstration of glutamate-positive axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses in cat neocortex. Brain Res 455:162–165.
  16. Douglas RJ, Martin KAC, Whitteridge D (1989) A canonical microcircuit for neocortex. Neural Comp 1:480–488.
    External Resources
  17. Dow BM, Snyder AZ, Vautin RG, Bauer R (1981) Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey. Exp Brain Res 44:213–228.
  18. Eccles JC (1984) The cerebral neocortex: a theory of its operation. In: Cerebral Cortex Vol 2, Functional Properties of Cortical Cells (Jones EG, Peters A, eds) pp 1–32. New York: Plenum Press.
  19. Elston GN (2001) Interlaminar differences in the pyramidal cell phenotype in cortical areas 7m and STP (the superior temporal polysensory area) of the macaque monkey. Exp Brain Res 138:141–152.
  20. Elston GN (2002) Cortical heterogeneity: implications for visual processing and polysensory integration. J Neurocytol 31:317–335.
  21. Elston GN (2003a) Cortex, cognition and the cell: new insights into the pyramidal cell and prefrontal function. Cereb Cortex 13:1124–1138.
  22. Elston GN (2003b) Pyramidal cell heterogeneity in the visual cortex of the nocturnal New World owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Neuroscience 117:213–219.
  23. Elston GN, Garey LJ (2004) New research findings on the anatomy of the cerebral cortex with special consideration of anthropological questions. Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Printery.
  24. Elston GN, Jelinek HF (2001) Dendritic branching patterns of pyramidal cells in the visual cortex of the New World marmoset monkey, with comparative notes on the Old World macaque monkey. Fractals 9:297–303.
  25. Elston GN, Rockland KS (2002) The pyramidal cell of the sensorimotor cortex of the macaque monkey: phenotypic variation. Cereb Cortex 10:1071–1078.
  26. Elston GN, Rosa MGP (1997) The occipitoparietal pathway of the macaque monkey: comparison of pyramidal cell morphology in layer III of functionally related cortical visual areas. Cereb Cortex 7:432–452.
  27. Elston GN, Rosa MGP (1998) Morphological variation of layer III pyramidal neurones in the occipitotemporal pathway of the macaque monkey visual cortex. Cereb Cortex 8:278–294.
  28. Elston GN, Rosa MGP (2000) Pyramidal cells, patches, and cortical columns: a comparative study of infragranular neurons in TEO, TE, and the superior temporal polysensory area of the macaque monkey. J Neurosci 20:RC117 (1–5).
  29. Elston GN, Benavides–Piccione R, DeFelipe J (2001) The pyramidal cell in cognition: a comparative study in human and monkey. J Neurosci 21:RC163(1–5).
  30. Elston GN, Benavides–Piccione R, DeFelipe J (2004) A study of pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of the macaque monkey with comparative notes on inferotemporal and primary visual cortex. Cereb Cortex 15:64–73.
  31. Elston GN, Rosa MGP, Calford MB (1996) Comparison of dendritic fields of layer III pyramidal neurones in striate and extrastriate visual areas of the marmoset: a Lucifer Yellow intracellular injection study. Cereb Cortex 6:807–813.
  32. Elston GN, Tweedale R, Rosa MGP (1999a) Cortical integration in the visual system of the macaque monkey: large scale morphological differences of pyramidal neurones in the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 266:1367–1374.
  33. Elston GN, Tweedale R, Rosa MGP (1999b) Cellular heterogeneity in cerebral cortex. A study of the morphology of pyramidal neurones in visual areas of the marmoset monkey. J Comp Neurol 415:33–51.
  34. Felleman DJ, Kaas JH (1984) Receptive–field properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area (MT) of owl monkeys. J Neurophysiol 52:488–513.
  35. Felleman DJ, van Essen DC (1987) Receptive-field properties of neurons in area V3 of macaque monkey extrastriate cortex. J Neurophysiol 57:889–920.
  36. Felleman DJ, van Essen DC (1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 1:1–47.
  37. Fritsches KA (1995) Visuotopic Organization in the Primary and Second Visual Areas of the Marmoset. Thesis, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt.
  38. Gibson KR, Rumbaugh D, Beran M (2001) Bigger is better: primate brain size in relationship to cognition. In: Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex (Falk D, Gibson KR, eds) pp 79–97. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
  39. Hendry SHC, Calkins DJ (1998) Neuronal chemistry and functional organization in the primate visual system. Trends Neurosci 21:344–349.
  40. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1974) Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: a parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor. J Comp Neurol 158:295–306.
  41. Jacobs B, Scheibel AB (2002) Regional dendritic variation in primate cortical pyramidal cells. In: Cortical Areas: Unity And Diversity (Schüz A, Miller R, eds) pp 111–131. London: Taylor and Francis.
  42. Jelinek HF, Elston GN (2001) Pyramidal neurones in macaque visual cortex: interareal phenotypic variation of dendritic branching patterns. Fractals 9:287–296.
  43. Jelinek HF, Elston GN (2003) Branching patterns of neocortical pyramidal neurones in the visual cortex of the owl monkey. Fractals 11:391–396.
    External Resources
  44. Jerison H (2001) Epilogue: The study of primate brain evolution: where do we go from here? In: Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex (Falk D, Gibson KR, eds) pp 305–335. Cambridge UK: CUP.
  45. Jones EG (1968) An electron microscopic study of the terminations of afferent fiber systems onto the somatic sensory cortex of the cat. J Anat 103:595–597.
    External Resources
  46. Jones MW (2002) A comparative review of rodent prefrontal cortex and working memory. Curr Mol Medicine 2:485–505.
  47. Kaas JH (1997) Theories of visual cortex organization in primates. In: Cerebral Cortex Vol 12:Extrastriate Cortex in Primates (Rockland KS, Kaas JH, Peters A, eds) pp 91–125. New York: Plenum Press.
  48. Kolb B, Tees RC (1990) The rat as a model of cortical function. In: The Cerebral Cortex of the Rat (Kolb B, Tees RC, eds) pp 3–17. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
  49. Krubitzer LA, Kaas JH (1990) Cortical connections of MT in four species of primates: areal, modular, and retinotopic patterns. Vis Neurosci 5:165–204.
  50. Krubitzer LA (1995) The organization of neocortex in mammals: are species differences really so different? Trends Neurosci 18:408–417.
  51. Lyon DC, Kaas J (2002) Connectional evidence for dorsal and ventral V3, and other extrastriate areas in the prosimian primate, Galago garnetti. Brain Behav Evol 59:114–129.
  52. Mountcastle VB (1978) An organizing principle for general cortical function: the unit module and the distributed system. In: The Mindful Brain (Schmitt FO, ed) pp 7–50. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
  53. Newsome WT, Allman JM (1980) Interhemispheric connections of visual cortex in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, and the bushbaby, Galago senegalensis. J Comp Neurol 194:209–233.
  54. Poirazi P, Mel B (2001) Impact of active dendrites and structural plasticity on the storage capacity of neural tissue. Neuron 29:779–796.
  55. Rockel AJ, Hiorns RW, Powell TPS (1980) The basic uniformity in structure of the neocortex. Brain 103:221–244.
  56. Roe A, T’so DY (1995) Visual topography in primate V2: multiple representation across functional stripes. J Neurosci 15:3689–3715.
  57. Rosa MGP (1997) Visuotopic organization of primate extrastriate cortex. In: Cerebral Cortex Vol 12: Extrastriate Cortex in Primates (Rockland KS, Kaas JH, Peters A, eds) pp 127–204. New York: Plenum Press.
  58. Rosa MGP (2002) Visual maps in the adult primate cerebral cortex; some implications for brain development and evolution. Bzl J Med Biol Res 35:1485–1498.
  59. Rosa MGP, Casagrande VA, Preuss TM, Kaas JH (1997a) Visual field representation in striate and prestriate corticies of a prosimian primate (Galago garnetti). J Neurophysiol 77:3193–3217.
  60. Rosa MGP, Fritsches KA, Elston GN (1997b) The second visual area in the marmoset monkey: visuotopic organisation, magnification factors, architectonical boundaries, and modularity. J Comp Neurol 387:547–567.
  61. Schein SJ, Desimone R (1990) Spectral properties of V4 neurons in the macaque. J Neurosci 10:3369–3389.
  62. Schlagger BL, O’Leary DM (1991) Potential of visual cortex to develop an array of functional units unique to somatosensory cortex. Science 252:1556–1559.
  63. Sholl DA (1953) Dendritic organization in the neurons of the visual and motor cortices of the cat. J Anat 87:387–406.
  64. Symonds LL, Kaas JH (1978) Connections of striate cortex in the prosimian Galago senegalensis. J Comp Neurol 181:477–512.
  65. Szentágothai J (1978) The neuron network of the cerebral cortex: a functional interpretation. Proc R Soc Lond 201:219–248.
  66. van Essen DC, Newsome WT, Maunsell JHR (1984) The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropies and individual variability. Vision Res 24:429–448.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: October 20, 2004
Accepted: December 20, 2004
Published online: April 25, 2005
Issue release date: May 2005

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/BBE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.