Measurement: Taxonomy and Scaling
Categories, Dimensions and Prototypes: Critical Issues for Psychiatric ClassificationJablensky A.
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Being descendants of the Kraepelinian nosology, DSM-IV and ICD-10 rely largely on the internal cohesion of the clinical picture and the pattern of course and outcome as validating criteria of the definitions of mental disorders. The majority of the research diagnostic criteria are provisional and should be extensively tested against empirical evidence. The crucial issue is whether psychiatric disorders, as currently defined in DSM-IV and ICD-10, are clearly separated from one another and from normality. Options for future revisions of the classifications include categorical typologies, dimensional models and empirically derived prototypes. The advantages and disadvantages of each option are outlined, highlighting the need for new research focusing on these critical issues.
© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
Sokal RR: Classification: Purposes, principles, progress, prospects. Science 1974;185:115–123.
Nelson K: Some evidence for the cognitive primacy of categorization and its functional basis. Merrill Palmer Q Behav Dev 1973;19:21–39.
Scadding G: Nosology, taxonomy and the classification conundrum of the functional psychoses. Br J Psychiatry 1993;162:237–238.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4 (DSM-IV). Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
World Health Organization: The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva, WHO, 1992.
Kraepelin E: Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, 5. Aufl. Leipzig, Barth, 1896.
World Bank: World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. New York, Oxford University Press, 1993.
Hempel CG: Introduction to problems of taxonomy; in Zubin J (ed): Field Studies in the Mental Disorders. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1961, pp 3–22.
- Millon T: Classification in psychopathology: Rationale, alternatives, and standards. J Abnorm Psychol 1991;100:245–261.
Cantor N, Genero N: Psychiatric diagnosis and natural categorization: A close analogy; in Millon T, Klerman GL (eds): Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology. New York, Guilford Press, 1986, pp 233–256.
- Kendell RE, Jablensky A: Distinguishing between the validity and the utility of psychiatric diagnosis. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:4–12.
Jablensky A, Kendell RE: Criteria for assessing a classification in psychiatry; in Maj M, Gaebel W, López-Ibor J, Sartorius N (eds): The Future of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification. Chichester, Wiley, 2002, pp 1–24.
Grayson DA: Can categorical and dimensional views of psychiatric illness be distinguished? Br J Psychiatry 1987;26:57–63.
Skinner HA: Construct validation approach to psychiatric classification; in Millon T, Klerman GL (eds): Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology. New York, Guilford Press, 1986, pp 307–330.
Weber M: The Methodology of the Social Sciences. New York, Free Press, 1949.
- Rosch E, Mervis CB: Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cogn Psychol 1975;7:573–605.
- Schwartz MA, Wiggis OP: Diagnosis and ideal types: A contribution to psychiatric classification. Compr Psychiatry 1987;28:277–291.
- Livesley WJ: The classification of personality disorder: 1. The choice of category concept. Can J Psychiatry 1985;30:353–358.
- Woodbury MA, Clive J, Garson A: Mathematical typology: A grade of membership technique for obtaining disease definition. Comput Biomed Res 1978;11:277–298.
- Manton KG, Korten A, Woodbury MA, Anker M, Jablensky A: Symptom profiles of psychiatric disorders based on graded disease classes: An illustration using data from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Psychol Med 1994;24:133–144.
- Jablensky A, Woodbury MA: Dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity in 1908: A grade of membership analysis of the Kraepelinian dichotomy. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995;245:202–209.
- Faraone SV, Tsuang MT: Measuring diagnostic accuracy in the absence of a ‘gold standard’. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:650–657.
- Widiger TA, Clark LA: Towards DSM-V and the classification of psychopathology. Psychol Bull 2000;126:946–963.
- Cloninger CR, Martin RL, Guze SB, Clayton PJ: Diagnosis and prognosis in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:15–25.
- Ginsburg BE, Werick TM, Escobar JI, Kugelmass S, Treanor JJ, Wendtland L: Molecular genetics of psychopathologies: A search for simple answers to complex problems. Behav Genet 1996;26:325–333.
- Sullivan PF, Kendler KS: Typology of common psychiatric syndromes. Br J Psychiatry 1998;173:312–319.
- Kendell RE: Clinical validity. Psychol Med 1989;19:45–55.
- Sigvardsson S, Bohman M, von Knorring AL, Cloninger CR: Symptom patterns and causes of somatization in men: I. Differentiation of two discrete disorders. Genet Epidemiol 1986;3:153–169.
- Hallmayer JF, Jablensky A, Michie P, Woodbury M, Salmon B, Combrinck J, Wichmann H, Rock D, D’Ercole M, Howell S, Dragovic M, Kent A: Linkage analysis of candidate regions using a composite neurocognitive phenotype correlated with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 2003;8:511–523.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.