Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Gender Difference of in vivo Skin Surface pH in the Axilla and the Effect of a Standardized Washing Procedure with Tap Water

Williams S. · Davids M. · Reuther T. · Kraus D. · Kerscher M.

Author affiliations

Division of Cosmetic Sciences, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Related Articles for ""

Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2005;18:247–252

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: August 23, 2004
Accepted: February 21, 2005
Published online: August 11, 2005
Issue release date: September – October

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1660-5527 (Print)
eISSN: 1660-5535 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/SPP

Abstract

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the axillary skin surface pH and explore potential gender-related differences together with the influence of a washing procedure in healthy subjects. After a run-in period, the skin surface pH was measured in vivo in 10 men and 10 women under standardized conditions in three distinct locations of each axilla (at baseline and up to 6 h after washing). Potential interfering influences were thoroughly excluded. Our study revealed a statistically significant difference in axillary skin surface pH between men and women with more acidic values in females (p ≤ 0.001). The baseline axillary pH before washing was 6.58 ± 0.63 (right) and 6.67 ± 0.65 (left) in men compared to 5.8 ± 0.53 (right) and 5.94 ± 0.62 (left) in women. The difference between the right and left armpit was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in any group. After standardized washing procedures with pure tap water, the mean axillary pH decreased significantly in women at all measurement times [lowest value 60 min after washing: 5.51 ± 0.7 (right) and 5.64 ± 0.7 (left)], while it slightly increased in men [highest value 240 min after washing: 6.7 ± 0.59 (right) and 6.78 ± 0.69 (left)]. In summary, there is a gender difference in axillary skin surface pH. Washing with water further increased the difference between male and female pH values.

© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Ehlers C, Ivens UI, Moller ML, Senderovitz T, Serup J: Females have lower skin surface pH than men: A study on the surface of gender, forearm site variation, right/left difference and time of the day on the skin surface pH. Skin Res Technol 2001;7:90–94.
  2. Watkinson A, Lee R, Moore A, Paterson S, Rawlings A: Identification of a barrier deficiency in the stratum corneum of the axilla. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:415.
    External Resources
  3. Korting HC, Lukacs A, Vogt N, Urban J, Ehret W, Ruckdeschel G: Influence of the pH-value on the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes in continuous culture. Zentralbl Hyg 1992;193:78–90.
  4. Schmid MH, Korting HC: The concept of the acid mantle of the skin: Its relevance for the choice of skin cleansers. Dermatology 1995;191:276–280.
  5. Mauro T, Holleran WM, Grayson S, Gao WN, Man MQ, Kriehuber E, Behne M, Feingold KR, Elias PM: Barrier recovery is impeded at neutral pH, independent of ionic effects: Implications for extracellular lipid processing. Arch Dermatol Res 1998;290:215–222.
  6. Mauro T, Behne M, Hanson K, Barry N, Clegg R, Holleran W, Elias P: Novel methods for measurement and localization of stratum corneum pH. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:415.
  7. Behne MJ, Meyer JW, Hanson KM, Barry NP, Murata S, Crumrine D, Clegg RW, Gratton E, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Mauro TM: NHE1 regulates the stratum corneum permeability barrier homeostasis. Microenvironment acidification assessed with fluorescence lifetime imaging. J Biol Chem 2002;277:47399–47406.
  8. Rippke F, Schreiner V, Schwanitz HJ: The acidic milieu of the horny layer: New findings on the physiology and pathophysiology of skin pH. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002;3:261–272.
  9. Behne MJ, Barry NP, Hanson KM, Aronchik I, Clegg RW, Gratton E, Feingold K, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Mauro TM: Neonatal development of the stratum corneum pH gradient: Localization and mechanisms leading to emergence of optimal barrier function. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120:998–1006.
  10. Sznitowska M, Janicki S, Williams A, Lau S, Stolyhwo A: pH-induced modifications to stratum corneum lipids investigated using thermal, spectroscopic, and chromatographic techniques. J Pharm Sci 2003;92:173–179.
  11. Chiou YB, Blume-Peytavi U: Stratum corneum maturation: A review of neonatal skin function. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:57–66.
  12. Fluhr JW, Behne MJ, Brown BE, Moskowitz DG, Selden C, Mao-Qiang M, Mauro TM, Elias PM, Feingold KR: Stratum corneum acidification in neonatal skin: Secretory phospholipase A2 and the sodium/hydrogen antiporter-1 acidify neonatal rat stratum corneum. J Invest Dermatol 2004;122:320–329.
  13. Parra JL, Paye M, EEMCO Group: EEMCO guidance for the in vivo assessment of skin surface pH. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2003;16:188–202.
  14. Osborne W, Friberg SE: Role of stratum corneum lipids as moisture retaining agents. J Dispers Sci Technol 1987;8:173–179.
  15. Stenzaly-Achtert S, Scholermann A, Schreiber J, Diec KH, Rippke F, Bielfeldt S: Axillary pH and influence of deodorants. Skin Res Technol 2000;6:87–91.
  16. Burry JS, Coulson HF, Esser I, Marti V, Melling SJ, Rawlings AV, Roberts G, Mills AK: Erroneous gender differences in axillary skin surface/sweat pH. Int J Cosmet Sci 2001;23:99–107.
    External Resources
  17. Öhman H, Vahlquist A: In vivo studies concerning a pH gradient in human stratum corneum and upper epidermis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1994;74:374–379.
  18. Burry J, Coulson HF, Roberts G: Circadian rhythms in axillary skin surface pH. Int J Cosmet Sci 2001;23:207–210.
    External Resources
  19. Zlotogorski A: Distribution of skin surface pH on the forehead and cheek of adults. Arch Dermatol Res 1987;279:398–401.
  20. Thurmon FM, Ottenstein B: Studies on chemistry of human perspiration with especial reference to its lactic acid content. J Invest Dermatol 1952;18:333–339.
  21. Yosipovitch G, Tur E, Morduchowicz G, Boner G: Skin surface pH, moisture, and pruritus in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant 1993;8:1129–1132.
  22. Yosipovitch G, Tur E, Cohen O, Rusecki Y: Skin surface pH in intertriginous areas in NIDDM patients: Possible correlation to candidal intertrigo. Diabetes Care 1993;16:560–563.
  23. Wilhelm KP, Cua Ab, Maibach HI: Skin aging: Effect on transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydratation, skin surface pH, and casual sebum content. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:1806–1809.
  24. Thune P, Nilsen T, Hanstad IK, Gustavsen T, Lovig Dahl H: The water barrier function of the skin in relation to the water content of stratum corneum, pH and skin lipids. Acta Derm Venereol 1988;68:277–283.
  25. Austin C, Ellis J: Microbial pathways leading to steroidal malodour in the axilla. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003;87:105–110.
  26. Piérard GE, Elsner P, Marks R, Masson P, Paye M, EEMCO Group: EEMCO guidance for the efficacy assessment of antiperspirants and deodorants. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2003;16:324–342.
  27. Braun-Falco O, Korting HC: Syndets in the treatment of atopic eczema; in Ruzicka T, Ring J, Przybilla B (eds): Handbook of Atopic Eczema. Berlin, Springer, 1991, pp 356–363.
  28. Korting HC, Braun-Falco O: The effect of detergents on skin pH and its consequences. Clin Dermatol 1996;14:23–27.
  29. Gfatter R, Hackl P, Braun F: Effects of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants. Dermatology 1997;19:258–262.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: August 23, 2004
Accepted: February 21, 2005
Published online: August 11, 2005
Issue release date: September – October

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1660-5527 (Print)
eISSN: 1660-5535 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/SPP


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.