Validity and Reproducibility of a Precoded Questionnaire to Assess Fruit and Vegetable Intake in European 11- to 12-Year-Old SchoolchildrenHaraldsdóttir J.a · Thórsdóttir I.b, c · de Almeida M.D.V.d · Maes L.e · Pérez Rodrigo C.f · Elmadfa I.g · Frost Andersen L.h
aDepartment of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark; bUnit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, and cDepartment of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; dFaculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; eDepartment of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; fCommunity Nutrition Unit, Bilbao, Spain; gInstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; hDepartment of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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Background/Aims: Validity and reproducibility were evaluated of a new questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes in 11- to 12-year-old children. Methods: The precoded teacher-assisted self-administered questionnaire included two sections: a 24-hour recall part and a food frequency part. Validity was tested in 4 countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal; n = 43–60 per country) using a 1-day weighed food record and 7-day food records as reference methods. Test-retest (7–12 days apart) reproducibility was assessed in 6 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Spain; n = 60–74 per country). Results: Spearman rank correlations for fruit and vegetable intake according to the frequency part and the 7-day food record ranged between r = 0.40–0.53. Between 25–50% were classified into the same quartile and 70–88% into the same or adjacent quartile. Test-retest Spearman rank correlations for the food frequency part were r = 0.47–0.84. Three countries showed no significant difference between fruit intake as assessed with the 24-hour recall part and the 1-day weighed food record, and 2 countries showed no significant difference for vegetables. In the other countries, the 24-hour recall part resulted in substantially higher mean intake levels. Conclusion: Validity and reproducibility as to ranking of subjects were regarded to be satisfactory in all countries. Group mean intake, based on the original 24-hour part, was valid for fruit in 3 countries and for vegetables in 2 countries, and this part was subsequently adjusted to avoid overestimation, before the questionnaire was used in the Pro Children study.
© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
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