Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Research Paper

Maximum Skin Hyperaemia Induced by Local Heating: Possible Mechanisms

Gooding K.M.a · Hannemann M.M.a · Tooke J.E.a · Clough G.F.b · Shore A.C.a

Author affiliations

aInstitute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, and bDivision of Infection, Inflammation and Repair, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

Related Articles for ""

J Vasc Res 2006;43:270–277

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Paper

Received: August 04, 2005
Accepted: December 17, 2005
Published online: May 17, 2006
Issue release date: May 2006

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-1172 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0135 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/JVR

Abstract

Background: Maximum skin hyperaemia (MH) induced by heating skin to ≧42°C is impaired in individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interpretation of these findings is hampered by the lack of clarity of the mechanisms involved in the attainment of MH. Methods: MH was achieved by local heating of skin to 42–43°C for 30 min, and assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry. Using double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study designs, the roles of prostaglandins were investigated by inhibiting their production with aspirin and histamine, with the H1 receptor antagonist cetirizine. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME), and enhanced by sildenafil (prevents breakdown of cGMP). Results: MH was not altered by aspirin, cetirizine or sildenafil, but was reduced by L-NAME: median placebo 4.48 V (25th, 75th centiles: 3.71, 4.70) versus L-NAME 3.25 V (3.10, 3.80) (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Inhibition of NO production (L-NAME) resulted in a more rapid reduction in hyperaemia after heating (p = 0.011), whereas hyperaemia was prolonged in the presence of sildenafil (p = 0.003). The increase in skin blood flow was largely confined to the directly heated area, suggesting that the role of heat-induced activation of the axon reflex was small. Conclusion: NO, but not prostaglandins, histamine or an axon reflex, contributes to the increase in blood flow on heating and NO is also a component of the resolution of MH after heating.

© 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Ijzerman RG, de Jongh RT, Beijk MAM, van Weissenbruch MM, Delamarre-van de Waal HA, Serne EH, Stehouwer CDA: Individuals at increased coronary heart disease risk are characterized by an impaired microvascular function in skin. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:536–542.
  2. Khan F, Elhadd TA, Greene SA, Belch JJ: Impaired skin microvascular function in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:215–220.
  3. Shore AC, Price KJ, Sandeman DD, Green EM, Tripp JH, Tooke JE: Impaired microvascular hyperaemic response in children with diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1991;8:619–623.
  4. Sandeman DD, Pym CA, Green EM, Seamark C, Shore AC, Tooke JE: Microvascular vasodilatation in the feet of newly diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. BMJ 1991;302:1122–1123.
  5. Lee BC, Appleton M, Shore AC, Tooke JE, Hattersley AT: Impaired maximum microvascular hyperaemia in patients with MODY 3 (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene mutations). Diabet Med 1999;16:731–735.
  6. Jaap AJ, Hammersley MS, Shore AC, Tooke JE: Reduced microvascular hyperaemia in subjects at risk of developing type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1994;37:214–216.
  7. Hannemann MM, Liddell WG, Shore AC, Clark PM, Tooke JE: Vascular function in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. J Vasc Res 2001;39:311–319.
  8. Goh KL, Shore AC, Quinn M, Tooke JE: Impaired microvascular vasodilatory function in 3-month-old infants of low birth weight. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1102–1107.
  9. Strain WD, Chaturvedi N, Leggetter S, Nihoyannopoulos P, Rajkumar C, Bulpitt CJ, Shore AC: Ethnic differences in skin microvascular function and their relation to cardiac target-organ damage. J Hypertens 2005;23:133–140.
  10. Shore AC: Vascular biology and physiology; in Lowe GD, Tooke JE (eds): A Textbook of Vascular Medicine. Bath, Arnold, 1996, pp 7–42.
  11. Golay S, Haeberli C, Delacahux A, Liaudet L, Kucera P, Waeber B, Feihl F: Local heating of human skin causes hyperaemia without mediation by muscarinic cholinergic receptors or prostanoids. J Appl Physiol 2004;97:1781–1786.
  12. Kellogg DL, Liu Y, Kosiba IF, O’Donnell D: Role of nitric oxide in vascular effects of local warming of the skin in humans. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:1185–1190.
  13. Minson CT, Berry LT, Joyner MJ: Nitric oxide and neurally mediated regulation of skin blood flow during local heating. J Appl Physiol 2001;91:1619–1626.
  14. Heavey DJ, Barrow SE, Hickling NE, Ritter JM: Aspirin causes short-lived inhibition of bradykinin-stimulated prostacyclin production in man. Nature 1985;318:186–188.
  15. Clough GF, Bennett AR, Church MK: Effects of H1 antagonists on the cutaneous vascular response to histamine and bradykinin: a study using scanning laser Doppler imaging. Br J Dermatol 1998;138:806–814.
  16. Denham KJ, Boutsiouki P, Clough GF, Church MK: Comparison of the effects of desloratadine and levocetirizine on histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch in human skin. Inflamm Res 2003;52:424–427.
  17. Simons FE, Murray HE, Simons KJ: Quantitation of H1-receptor antagonists in skin and serum. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:759–764.
  18. Boutsiouki P, Georgiou S, Clough GF: Recovery of nitric oxide from acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation in human skin in vivo. Microcirculation 2004;11:249–259.
  19. Clough GF: Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of microvascular perfusion in human skin in vivo. J Physiol 1999;516:549–557.
  20. Klede M, Clough GF, Lischetzki G, Schmelz M: The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester on neuropeptide-induced vasodilation and protein extravasation in human skin. J Vasc Res 2003;40:105–114.
  21. Sato A, Miura H, Liu Y, Somberg LB, Otterson MF, Demeure MJ, Schiulte WJ, Eberhardt LM, Loberiza FR, Sakuma I, Gutterman DD: Effect of gender on endothelium-dependent dilation to bradykinin in human adipose microvessels. Am J Physiol 2002;283:H845–H852.
  22. Taylor TA, Gariepy CE, Pollock DM, Pollock JS: Gender differences in ET and NOS systems in ET-B receptor-deficient rats: effect of a high salt diet. Hypertension 2003;41:657–662.
  23. Scotland RS, Madhani M, Chauhan S, Moncada S, Andresen J, Nilsson H, Hobbs AJ, Ahluwalia A: Investigation of vascular responses in endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclooxygenase-1 double-knockout mice: key role for endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in the regulation of blood pressure in vivo. Circulation 2005;111:796–803.
  24. Furchgott RF, Jothianandan D: Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation involving cyclic GMP relaxation induced by nitric oxide, carbon dioxide and light. Blood Vessels 1991;28:52–61.
  25. Kimura M, Higashi Y, Hara K, Noma K, Sasaki S, Nakagawa K, Goto C, Oshima T, Yoshizumi M, Chayama K: PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil citrate augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in smokers. Hypertension 2003;41:1106–1110.
  26. Dundar M, Kocak I, Dundar SO, Erol H: Evaluation of side effects of sildenafil in a group of young healthy volunteers. Int Urol Nephrol 2001;32:705–708.
  27. Charkoudian N, Eisenach JH, Atkinson JLD, Fealey RD, Joyner MJ: Effects of chronic sympathectomy on locally mediated cutaneous vasodilation in humans. J Appl Physiol 2002;92:685–690.
  28. Pergola PE, Kellogg DL, Johnson JM, Kosiba WA, Solomon DE: Role of sympathetic nerves in the vascular effects of local temperature in human forearm skin. Am J Physiol 1993;265:H785–H792.
  29. Magrerl W, Treede RD: Heat-evoked vasodilatation in human hairy skin: axon reflexes due to low-level activity of nociceptive afferents. J Physiol 1996;497:837–848.
    External Resources
  30. Charkoudian N, Fromy B, Saumet JL: Reflex control of the cutaneous circulation after acute and chronic local capsaicin. J Appl Physiol 2001;90:1860–1864.
  31. Khan F, Davidson NC, Littleford RC, Litchfield SJ, Struthers AD, Belch JJ: Cutaneous vascular responses to acetylcholine are mediated by a prostanoid-dependent mechanism in man. Vasc Med 2000;2:82–86.
    External Resources
  32. Noon JP, Walker BR, Hand MF, Webb DJ: Studies with iontophoretic administration of drugs to human dermal vessels in vivo: cholinergic vasodilatation is mediated by dilator prostanoids rather than nitric oxide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;45:545–550.
  33. Wong BJ, Wilkins BW, Minson CT: H1 but not H2 histamine receptor activation contributes to the rise in skin blood flow during whole body heating. J Physiol 2004;560:941–948.
  34. Clough GF, Boutsiouki P, Church MK: Comparison of the effects of levocetirizine and loratadine on histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch in human skin. Allergy 2001;56:985–988.
  35. Frossard N, Melac M, Benabdesselam O, Pauli G: Consistency of the efficacy of cetirizine and eabastine on skin reactivity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;80:61–65.
  36. Van de Voorde J, Delaey C, Depypere H, Vanheel B: Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxing influence of histamine on isolated human subcutaneous resistance arteries. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;349:61–66.
  37. Grossmann M, Jamieson MJ, Kirch W: Histamine response and local cooling in the human skin: involvement of H1- and H2-receptors. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;48:216–222.
  38. Campbell WB, Harder DR: Prologue: EDHF – what is it? Am J Physiol 2001;280:H2413–H2416.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Paper

Received: August 04, 2005
Accepted: December 17, 2005
Published online: May 17, 2006
Issue release date: May 2006

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-1172 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0135 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/JVR


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.