Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

A Comparison Study of the Vertical Bias of Pyramidal Cells in the Hippocampus and Neocortex

Casanova M.F. · Switala A.E. · Trippe J.

Author affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky., USA

Related Articles for ""

Dev Neurosci 2007;29:193–200

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 9.00 *
EUR 8.00 *
USD 9.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: December 07, 2006
Issue release date: December 2006

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0378-5866 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9859 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DNE

Abstract

In this study, we employed morphometric image analysis of the hippocampus proper and temporal lobe neocortex in postmortem tissue to determine vertical bias quantified as ΔΘ, angular dispersion, as well asan index of alignment of cellular elements relative to the radial plane. The radial alignment of cellular elements was consistent with a minicolumnar organization of the cortex. Photomicrographs were taken of the left-hemisphere hippocampal CA3/1 subfields of 13 fetal subjects ranging in gestational age from 19 weeks to 36 weeks and 19 normal individuals aged 4 months to 98 years. For comparison, micrographs from the temporal lobe (Brodmann areas 21 and 22) were similarly processed for layers III and V, where the x-axes of the transformed coordinate system were taken to be the layer III/IV and IV/V borders, respectively. Computerized image analysis measurements of the angular dispersion for the temporal lobe region and hippocampus proper differed significantly within the same brains (p < 0.001). The neocortical layer III exhibited the highest values for ΔΘ, indicating a high degree of columnar organization. Values for ΔΘ in the hippocampal CA subfields were lower but demonstrated significance for the radial alignment of neurons in this area. Values for ΔΘin layer V were intermediate between those of layer III and the hippocampus, consistent with increasing degrees of radial columnar organization of infragranular layers of the neocortex in comparison with the hippocampus and of supragranular in comparison with infragranular neocortical layers. Pyramidal cell arrays within allocortical areas and the neocortex constitute different modular arrangements. This morphological variability may be the expression of evolutionary differences in cortical development.

© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Abraham H, Perez-Garcia CG, Meyer G (2004): p73 and Reelin in Cajal-Retzius cells of the developing human hippocampal formation. Cereb Cortex 14:484–495.
  2. Alcantara S, Pozas E, Ibanez CF, Soriano E (2006): BDNF-modulated spatial organization of Cajal-Retzius and GABAergic neurons in the marginal zone plays a role in the development of cortical organization. Cereb Cortex 16:487–499.
  3. Ang ES Jr, Haydar TF, Gluncic V, Rakic P (2003): Four-dimensional migratory coordinates of GABAergic interneurons in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 23:5805–5815.
  4. Arnold SE, Trojanowski JQ (1996): Human fetal hippocampal development. 1. cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture, and neuronal morphologic features. J Comp Neurol 367:274–292.
  5. Bayer SA, Altman J (1991): Neocortical Development. New York, Raven Press.
  6. Bielle F, Griveau A, Narboux-Neme N, Vigneau S, Sigrist M, Arber S, Wassef M, Pierani A (2005): Multiple origins of Cajal-Retzius cells at the borders of the developing pallium. Nat Neurosci 8:1002–1012.
  7. Buxhoeveden DP, Casanova MF (2002a): The minicolumn and evolution of the brain. Brain Behav Evol 60:125–151.
  8. Buxhoeveden DP, Casanova MF (2002b): The minicolumnar hypothesis in neurosciences. Brain 125:935–951.
  9. Casanova MF (2005): Minicolumnar pathology in autism; in Casanova MF (ed): Recent Developments in Autism Research. New York, Nova Science Publishers, chapt 6.
  10. Casanova MF, Buxhoeveden DP, Gomez J (2003a): Disruption in the inhibitory architecture of the cell minicolumn: implications for autism. Neuroscientist 9:496–507.
  11. Casanova MF, Buxhoeveden DP, Switala AE, Roy E (2002): Asperger’s syndrome and cortical neuropathology. J Child Neurol 17:142–145.
  12. Casanova MF, Buxhoeveden DP, Switala AE, Roy E (2003b): Rett syndrome as a minicolumnopathy. Clin Neuropathol 22:163–168.
  13. Casanova MF, Trippe J, Switala A (in press): A temporal continuity to the vertical organization of the human neocortex. Cereb Cortex.
  14. Caviness VS (1982): Neocortical histogenesis in normal and reeler mice: a developmental study based upon [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Brain Res 256:293–302.
    External Resources
  15. Chklovskii DB, Koulakov AA (2004): Maps in the brain: what can we learn from them? Annu Rev Neurosci 27:369–392.
  16. Columbo JA, Lipina S, Yanez A, Puissant V (1997): Postnatal development of interlaminar astroglial processes in the cerebral cortex of primates. Int J Dev Neurosci 15:823–833.
  17. DeFelipe J, Hendry SHC, Hashikawa T, Molinari M, Jones EG (1990): A microcolumnar structure of monkey cerebral cortex revealed by immunocytochemical studies of double bouquet cell axons. Neuroscience 37:655–673.
  18. Del Rio JA, Heimrich V, Borrell E, Forster A, Drakew S, Alcantara K, Nakajima T, Miyata M, Ogawa K, Mikoshiba K, Derer P, Frotscher M, Soriano E (1997): A role for Cajal-Retzius cells and reelin in the development of hippocampal connections. Nature 385:70–74.
  19. Ebner FF (1976): The forebrain of reptiles and mammals; in Masterton RB, Bitterman ME, Campbell CBG, Hotton N (eds): Evolution of Brain and Behavior in Vertebrates. New York, Wiley, pp 147–167.
  20. Favorov OV, Kelly DG (1994): Minicolumnar organization within somatosensory cortical segregates. 1. Development of afferent connections. Cereb Cortex 4:408–427.
  21. Forster E, Tielsch A, Saum B, Weiss KH, Johanssen C, Graus-Porta D, Muller U, Frotscher M (2002): Reelin, Disabled 1, and beta 1 integrins are required for the formation of the radial glial scaffold in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:13178–13183.
  22. Hartfuss E, Forster E, Bock HH, Hack MA, Leprince P, Gotz M, et al (2003): Reelin signaling directly affects radial glia morphology and biochemical maturation. Development 130:4597–4609.
  23. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1977): Functional architecture of the macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 198:1–59.
  24. Ishizuka N (2001): Laminar organization of the pyramidal cell layer of the subiculum in the rat. J Comp Neurol 435:89–110.
  25. Jones EG (2000): Microcolumns in the cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5019–5021.
  26. Kriegstein AR, Noctor SC (2004): Patterns of neuronal migration in the embryonic cortex. Trends Neurosci 27:392–399.
  27. Laughlin SB, Sejnowski TJ (2003): Communication in neuronal networks. Science 301:1870–1874.
  28. Lorente de Nó R (1938): The cerebral cortex: architecture, intracortical connections, and motor programs; in Fulton JF (ed): Physiology of the Nervous System. London, Oxford University Press, pp 291–339.
  29. Marin-Padilla M (1971): Early prenatal ontogenesis of the cerebral cortex (neocortex) of the cat (Felis domestica): a Golgi study. 1. The primordial neocortical organization. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 134:117–145.
  30. Marin-Padilla M (1978): Dual origin of the mammalian neocortex and evolution of the cortical plate. Anat Embryol 152:109–126.
  31. McConnell SK (1995): Constructing the cerebral cortex: neurogenesis and fate determination. Neuron 15:761–768.
  32. Meyer G, Perez-Garcia CG, Abraham H, Caput D (2002): Expression of p73 and Reelin in the developing human cortex. J Neurosci 22:4973–4986.
  33. Meyer G, Soria JM, Martinez-Galan JR, Martin-Clemente B, Fairen A (1998): Different origins and developmental histories of transient neurons in the marginal zone of the fetal and neonatal rat cortex. J Comp Neurol 397:493–518.
  34. Mountcastle VB (1997): The columnar organization of the neocortex. Brain 120:701–722.
  35. Nishikawa S, Goto S, Hamasaki T (2002): Involvement of reelin and Cajal-Retzius cells in the developmental formation of vertical columnar structures in the cerebral cortex: evidence from the study of mouse presubicular cortex. Cereb Cortex 12:1024–1030.
  36. Niu S, Renfro A, Quattrocchi CC, Sheldon M, D’Arcangelo G (2004): Reelin promotes hippocampal dendrite development through the VLDLR/ApoER2-Dab1 pathway. Neuron 41:71–84.
  37. Nowakowski RS, Rakic P (1981): The site of origin and route and rate of migration of neurons to the hippocampal region of the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol 196:129–154.
  38. Peters A, Sethares C (1996): Myelinated axons and the pyramidal cell modules in monkey primary visual cortex. J Comp Neurol 365:232–255.
  39. Peters A, Yilmaz E (1993): Neuronal organization in area 17 of cat visual cortex. Cereb Cortex 3:49–68.
  40. Pourdeyhimi B, Xu B, Nayernouri A (1994): Evaluating carpet appearance loss: pile lay orientation. Text Res J 64:130–135.
    External Resources
  41. Radnikow G, Feldmeyer D, Lubke J (2002): Axonal projection, input and output synapses, and synaptic physiology of Cajal-Retzius cells in the developing rat neocortex. J Neurosci 22:6908–6919.
  42. Rakic S, Zecevic N (2003): Emerging complexity of layer I in human cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 13:1072–1083.
  43. Reiner A (1991): A comparison of neurotransmitter-specific and neuropeptide-specific neuronal cell types present in the dorsal cortex in turtles with those present in the isocortex in mammals: implications for the evolution of isocortex. Brain Behav Evol 38:53–91.
  44. Reiner A (1993): Neurotransmitter organization and connections of turtle cortex: implications for the evolution of mammalian isocortex. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol 104:735–748.
  45. Rickmann M, Chronwall BM, Wolff JR (1977): On the development of the non-pyramidal neurons and axons outside the cortical plate: the early marginal zone as a pallial anlage. Anat Embryol 151:285–307.
  46. Skoglund TS, Pascher R, Berthold CH (2004): Aspects of the organization of neurons and dendritic bundles in primary somatosensory cortex of the rat. Neurosci Res 50:189–198.
  47. Schlaug G, Schleicher A, Zilles K (1995): Quantitative analysis of the columnar arrangement of neurons in the human cingulate cortex. J Comp Neurol 351:441–452.
  48. Schuurmans C, Armant O, Nieto M, Stenman JM, Britz O, Klenin N, Brown C, Langevin LM, Seibt J, Tang H, Cunningham JM, Dyck R, Walsh C, Campbell K, Polleux F, Guillemot F (2004): Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J 23:2892–2902.
  49. Soria JM, Fairen A (2000): Cellular mosaics in the rat marginal zone define an early neocortical territorialization. Cereb Cortex 10:400–412.
  50. Soriano E, Alvarado-Mallart RM, Dumesnil N, Del Rio JA, Sotelo C (1997): Cajal-Retzius cells regulate the radial glia phenotype in the adult and developing cerebellum and alter granule cell migration. Neuron 18:563–677.
  51. Stanfield BB, Cowan WM (1979): The development of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in normal and reeler mice. J Comp Neurol 185:423–459.
  52. Supèr H, Martinez A, Del Rio JA, Soriano E (1998): Involvement of distinct pioneer neurons in the formation of layer-specific connections in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 18:4616–4626.
  53. Takiguchi-Hayashi K, Sekiguchi M, Ashigaki S, Takamatsu M, Hasegawa H, Suzuki-Migishima R, Yokoyama M, Nakanishi S, Tanabe Y (2004): Generation of reelin-positive marginal zone cells from the caudomedial wall of telencephalic vesicles. J Neurosci 24:2286–2295.
  54. Tarabykin V, Stoykova A, Usman N, Gruss P (2001): Cortical upper layer neurons derive from the subventricular zone as indicated by Svet1 gene expression. Development 128:1983–1993.
  55. Tissir F, Goffinet AM (2003): Reelin and brain development. Nat Rev Neurosci 4:496–505.
  56. Tommerdahl MA, Favorov OV, Whitsel BL, Nakhle B, Gonchar YA (1993): Minicolumnar activation patterns in cat and monkey S1 cortex. Cereb Cortex 3:399–411.
  57. Weiss KH, Johanssen C, Tielsch A, Herz J, Deller T, Frotscher M, Forster E (2003): Malformation of the radial glial scaffold in the dentate gyrus of reeler mice, scrambler mice, and ApoER2/VLDLR-deficient mice. J Comp Neurol 460:56–65.
  58. Wood JG, Martin S, Price DJ (1992): Evidence that the earliest generated cells of the murine cerebral cortex form a transient population in the subplate and marginal zone. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 66:137–141.
  59. Yoshida M, Assimacopoulos S, Jones KR, Grove EA (2006): Massive loss of Cajal-Retzius cells does not disrupt neocortical layer order. Development 133:537–545.
  60. Zhao S, Chai X, Forster, E, Frotscher M (2004): Reelin is a positional signal for the lamination of dentate granule cells. Development 131:5117–5125.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: December 07, 2006
Issue release date: December 2006

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0378-5866 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9859 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/DNE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.