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Original Paper

Editor's Choice - Free Access

The Phonetic Realization of Devoiced Vowels in the Southern Ute Language

Oberly S. · Kharlamov V.

Author affiliations

aUniversity of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., and bFlorida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Fla., USA

Corresponding Author

Stacey Oberly

PO Box 210025

Tucson, AZ 85721 (USA)

E-Mail soberly@email.arizona.edu

Related Articles for ""

Phonetica 2015;72:1-19

Abstract

In this article, we analyze the phonetic realizations of devoiced vowels from 8 fluent speakers of Southern Ute, a severely endangered Southern Numic Uto-Aztecan language spoken in Southwestern Colorado. Devoiced vowels are considered to be an important aspect of the phonology of Southern Ute, yet very little is known about the pronunciation of such segments. Our findings indicate that devoiced vowels are realized phonetically in three ways: (i) fully voiceless, (ii) partially devoiced, and (iii) fully reduced with concurrent lengthening, lower intensity and greater voicelessness of the preceding consonant. Such variable and noncategorical devoicing is seen for both high and nonhigh vowels and all consonants regardless of their manner of articulation.

© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel



References

  1. Armagost J (1985): On predicting voiceless vowels in Comanche. Kansas Working Papers Linguist: Stud Native Am Lang IV:1-15.
  2. Armagost J, Miller W (2000): Are voiceless vowels phonemic in Comanche? In Casad E, Willet T (eds): Uto-Zatecan: Structural, Temporal, and Geographic Perspectives. Hermosillo, Universidad de Sonora, pp 57-82.
  3. Beckman ME (1996): When is a syllable not a syllable? In Otake T, Cutler A (eds): Phonological Structure and Language Processing: Cross-Linguistic Studies. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
  4. Beckman ME, Shoji A (1994): Spectral and perceptual evidence for CV coarticulation in Japanese devoiced /si/ and /syu/. Phonetica 41:61-71.
  5. Blumstein SE, Steven KN (1980): Perceptual invariance and onset spectra for stop consonants in different vowel environments. J Acoust Soc Am 67:648-662.
  6. Boersma P, Weenink D (2014): Praat: doing phonetics by computer (computer program); version 5.3.59. http://www.praat.org/ (accessed November 25, 2013).
  7. Browman CP, Goldstein L (1990): Gestural specification using dynamically defined articulatory structures. J Phon 18:299-320.
  8. Canonge E (1957): Voiceless vowels in Comanche. Int J Am Linguist 23:63-67.
  9. Cedergren HJ, Simoneau L (1985): La chute des voyelles hautes en Francais de Montreal: as-tu entendu la belle syncope? In Lemieux M, Cedergren HJ (eds): Les tendences dynamiques de Français parlé à Montreal. Montreal, Office de la Langue Française, pp 57-144.
  10. Charney J (1993): A Grammar of Comanche. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press.
  11. Charney J (1996): Ute Dictionary. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  12. Davidson L (2006): Schwa elision in fast speech: segmental deletion or gestural overlap? Phonetica 63:79-112.
  13. Eftychiou E (2010): Routes to lenition: an acoustic study. PLoS One 5:1-13.
  14. Givon T (1979): Ute Dictionary. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  15. Givon T (1980): Ute Reference Grammar. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  16. Givon T (2013): Ute Reference Grammar. Philadelphia, Benjamins.
  17. Gordon M (1998): The phonetics and phonology of non-modal vowels: a cross-linguistic perspective. Berkeley Linguist Soc 24:93-105.
  18. Goss J (1972): Ute Lexical and Phonological Patterns; PhD diss University of Chicago.
  19. Greenberg J (1969): Some methods of dynamic comparison in linguistics; in Puhvel J (ed): Substance and Structure of Languages. Los Angeles, Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics, pp 147-204.
  20. Harms R (1966): Stress, voice, and length in Southern Paiute. Int J Am Linguist 32:228-235.
  21. Imai T (2004): Vowel Devoicing in Tokyo Japanese: A Variationist Approach; PhD diss Michigan State University.
  22. Jaeger A (1978): Speech aerodynamics and phonological universals; in Proc 4th Annu Meet Berkeley Linguist Soc, pp 311-329.
  23. Jannedy S (1994): Rate effects on German unstressed syllables. Working Papers Linguist, Ohio State University 44:105-124.
  24. Jun S-A, Beckman ME (1993): A gestural-overlap analysis of vowel devoicing in Japanese and Korean. 1993 Annu Meet Linguist Soc Am, Los Angeles.
  25. Kröger B (1993): A gestural production model and its application to reduction in German. Phonetica 501:213-233.
  26. Ladefoged P, Maddieson I (1996): Sounds of the World's Languages. Malden, Wiley Blackwell.
  27. Lehiste I, Peterson G (1959): Vowel amplitude and phonemic stress in American English. J Acoust Soc Am 31:428-435.
  28. Lewis PM (ed) (2009): Ethnologue: Languages of the World, ed 16. Dallas, SIL International.
  29. Manaster-Ramer A (1986): Genesis of Hopi tones. Int J Am Linguist 52:154-160.
  30. Martin SE (1987): The Japanese Language through Time. New Haven, Yale University Press.
  31. Miyashita M (2000): Less stress, less pressure, less voice. Proc Southwest Workshop on Optimality Theory Conf 4, pp 43-55.
  32. Mo Y (2007): Temporal, spectral evidence of devoiced vowels in Korean. Proc 16th Int Congr Phon Sci, ID 1597, pp 445-448.
  33. Oberly S (2008): A Phonetic Analysis of Southern Ute with a Discussion of Southern Ute Language Policies and Revitalization; PhD diss University of Arizona.
  34. Ogasawara N (2007): Processing of Speech Variability: Vowel Reduction in Japanese; PhD diss University of Arizona.
  35. Ohala JJ (1975): A mathematical model of speech aerodynamics; in Fant G (ed): Speech Communication: Speech Production and Synthesis by Rule, 2. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell, pp 65-72.
  36. Ostreicher HJ, Sharf DJ (1976): Effects of coarticulation of the identification of deleted consonant and vowels. J Phon 4:285-301.
  37. Press M (1979): Chemehuevi: A Grammar and Lexicon. Berkeley, University of California Press.
  38. Sapir E (1930): The Southern Paiute Language. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 65:1-296.
  39. Tsuchida A (1997): Phonetics and Phonology of Japanese Vowel Devoicing; PhD diss Cornell University, Ithaca.
  40. Tsuchida A (2001): Japanese vowel devoicing: cases of consecutive devoicing environments. J East Asian Linguist 10:225-245.
  41. Whorf B (1934): Hopi Verb Classes. Ms No 1570. Philadelphia, Library of the American Philosophical Society.

Author Contacts

Stacey Oberly

PO Box 210025

Tucson, AZ 85721 (USA)

E-Mail soberly@email.arizona.edu


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: August 18, 2014
Accepted: February 12, 2015
Published online: May 28, 2015
Issue release date: October 2015

Number of Print Pages: 19
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 10

ISSN: 0031-8388 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0321 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PHO


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References

  1. Armagost J (1985): On predicting voiceless vowels in Comanche. Kansas Working Papers Linguist: Stud Native Am Lang IV:1-15.
  2. Armagost J, Miller W (2000): Are voiceless vowels phonemic in Comanche? In Casad E, Willet T (eds): Uto-Zatecan: Structural, Temporal, and Geographic Perspectives. Hermosillo, Universidad de Sonora, pp 57-82.
  3. Beckman ME (1996): When is a syllable not a syllable? In Otake T, Cutler A (eds): Phonological Structure and Language Processing: Cross-Linguistic Studies. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
  4. Beckman ME, Shoji A (1994): Spectral and perceptual evidence for CV coarticulation in Japanese devoiced /si/ and /syu/. Phonetica 41:61-71.
  5. Blumstein SE, Steven KN (1980): Perceptual invariance and onset spectra for stop consonants in different vowel environments. J Acoust Soc Am 67:648-662.
  6. Boersma P, Weenink D (2014): Praat: doing phonetics by computer (computer program); version 5.3.59. http://www.praat.org/ (accessed November 25, 2013).
  7. Browman CP, Goldstein L (1990): Gestural specification using dynamically defined articulatory structures. J Phon 18:299-320.
  8. Canonge E (1957): Voiceless vowels in Comanche. Int J Am Linguist 23:63-67.
  9. Cedergren HJ, Simoneau L (1985): La chute des voyelles hautes en Francais de Montreal: as-tu entendu la belle syncope? In Lemieux M, Cedergren HJ (eds): Les tendences dynamiques de Français parlé à Montreal. Montreal, Office de la Langue Française, pp 57-144.
  10. Charney J (1993): A Grammar of Comanche. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press.
  11. Charney J (1996): Ute Dictionary. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  12. Davidson L (2006): Schwa elision in fast speech: segmental deletion or gestural overlap? Phonetica 63:79-112.
  13. Eftychiou E (2010): Routes to lenition: an acoustic study. PLoS One 5:1-13.
  14. Givon T (1979): Ute Dictionary. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  15. Givon T (1980): Ute Reference Grammar. Ignacio, Southern Ute Tribe.
  16. Givon T (2013): Ute Reference Grammar. Philadelphia, Benjamins.
  17. Gordon M (1998): The phonetics and phonology of non-modal vowels: a cross-linguistic perspective. Berkeley Linguist Soc 24:93-105.
  18. Goss J (1972): Ute Lexical and Phonological Patterns; PhD diss University of Chicago.
  19. Greenberg J (1969): Some methods of dynamic comparison in linguistics; in Puhvel J (ed): Substance and Structure of Languages. Los Angeles, Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics, pp 147-204.
  20. Harms R (1966): Stress, voice, and length in Southern Paiute. Int J Am Linguist 32:228-235.
  21. Imai T (2004): Vowel Devoicing in Tokyo Japanese: A Variationist Approach; PhD diss Michigan State University.
  22. Jaeger A (1978): Speech aerodynamics and phonological universals; in Proc 4th Annu Meet Berkeley Linguist Soc, pp 311-329.
  23. Jannedy S (1994): Rate effects on German unstressed syllables. Working Papers Linguist, Ohio State University 44:105-124.
  24. Jun S-A, Beckman ME (1993): A gestural-overlap analysis of vowel devoicing in Japanese and Korean. 1993 Annu Meet Linguist Soc Am, Los Angeles.
  25. Kröger B (1993): A gestural production model and its application to reduction in German. Phonetica 501:213-233.
  26. Ladefoged P, Maddieson I (1996): Sounds of the World's Languages. Malden, Wiley Blackwell.
  27. Lehiste I, Peterson G (1959): Vowel amplitude and phonemic stress in American English. J Acoust Soc Am 31:428-435.
  28. Lewis PM (ed) (2009): Ethnologue: Languages of the World, ed 16. Dallas, SIL International.
  29. Manaster-Ramer A (1986): Genesis of Hopi tones. Int J Am Linguist 52:154-160.
  30. Martin SE (1987): The Japanese Language through Time. New Haven, Yale University Press.
  31. Miyashita M (2000): Less stress, less pressure, less voice. Proc Southwest Workshop on Optimality Theory Conf 4, pp 43-55.
  32. Mo Y (2007): Temporal, spectral evidence of devoiced vowels in Korean. Proc 16th Int Congr Phon Sci, ID 1597, pp 445-448.
  33. Oberly S (2008): A Phonetic Analysis of Southern Ute with a Discussion of Southern Ute Language Policies and Revitalization; PhD diss University of Arizona.
  34. Ogasawara N (2007): Processing of Speech Variability: Vowel Reduction in Japanese; PhD diss University of Arizona.
  35. Ohala JJ (1975): A mathematical model of speech aerodynamics; in Fant G (ed): Speech Communication: Speech Production and Synthesis by Rule, 2. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell, pp 65-72.
  36. Ostreicher HJ, Sharf DJ (1976): Effects of coarticulation of the identification of deleted consonant and vowels. J Phon 4:285-301.
  37. Press M (1979): Chemehuevi: A Grammar and Lexicon. Berkeley, University of California Press.
  38. Sapir E (1930): The Southern Paiute Language. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 65:1-296.
  39. Tsuchida A (1997): Phonetics and Phonology of Japanese Vowel Devoicing; PhD diss Cornell University, Ithaca.
  40. Tsuchida A (2001): Japanese vowel devoicing: cases of consecutive devoicing environments. J East Asian Linguist 10:225-245.
  41. Whorf B (1934): Hopi Verb Classes. Ms No 1570. Philadelphia, Library of the American Philosophical Society.
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