Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Psychother Psychosom 2017;86:268-282
(DOI:10.1159/000477940)

The Mortality and Myocardial Effects of Antidepressants Are Moderated by Preexisting Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis

Maslej M.M.a · Bolker B.M.b · Russell M.J.a · Eaton K.c · Durisko Z.a, d · Hollon S.D.e · Swanson G.M.f · Thomson Jr. J.A.g, h · Mulsant B.H.i · Andrews P.W.a

Author affiliations

Departments of aPsychology, Neuroscience, and Behaviour, bBiology and Mathematics & Statistics, and cBiochemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, and dSocial Aetiology of Mental Illness (SAMI) CIHR Training Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada; eDepartment of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; fCollege of Public Health, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar; gCounseling and Psychological Services, University of Virginia Student Health, and hInstitute of Law, Psychiatry, and Public Policy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; iCentre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Corresponding Author

Paul W. Andrews, PhD, JD

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behaviour

McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West

Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

E-Mail pandrews@mcmaster.ca

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Abstract

Background: Antidepressants (ADs) are commonly prescribed medications, but their long-term health effects are debated. ADs disrupt multiple adaptive processes regulated by evolutionarily ancient biochemicals, potentially increasing mortality. However, many ADs also have anticlotting properties that can be efficacious in treating cardiovascular disease. We conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of ADs on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in general-population and cardiovascular-patient samples. Methods: Two reviewers independently assessed articles from PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for AD-related mortality controlling for depression and other comorbidities. From these articles, we extracted information about cardiovascular events, cardiovascular risk status, and AD class. We conducted mixed-effect meta-analyses testing sample type and AD class as moderators of all-cause mortality and new cardiovascular events. Results: Seventeen studies met our search criteria. Sample type consistently moderated health risks. In general-population samples, AD use increased the risks of mortality (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14-1.55) and new cardiovascular events (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21). In cardiovascular patients, AD use did not significantly affect risks. AD class also moderated mortality, but the serotonin reuptake inhibitors were not significantly different from tricyclic ADs (TCAs) (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93-1.31, p = 0.27). Only “other ADs” were differentiable from TCAs (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.08-1.69). Mortality risk estimates increased when we analyzed the subset of studies controlling for premedication depression, suggesting the absence of confounding by indication. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that ADs are harmful in the general population but less harmful in cardiovascular patients.

© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Pratt LA, Brody DJ, Gu Q: Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2005-2008: NCHS Data Brief, No 76. Hyattsville, National Center for Health Statistics, 2011.
  2. Marcus SC, Olfson M: National trends in the treatment for depression from 1998 to 2007. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:1265-1273.
  3. Andrews PW, Thomson JA Jr, Amstadter A, Neale MC: Primum non nocere: an evolutionary analysis of whether antidepressants do more harm than good. Front Psychol 2012;3:117.
  4. Olfson M, Marcus SC: National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66:848-856.
  5. American Psychiatric Association: (DSM-5) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
  6. Almeida OP, Alfonso H, Hankey GJ, Flicker L: Depression, antidepressant use and mortality in later life: the Health in Men Study. PLoS One 2010;5:e11266.
  7. Smoller JW, Allison M, Cochrane BB, Curb JD, Perlis RH, Robinson JG, Rosal MC, Wenger NK, Wassertheil-Smoller S: Antidepressant use and risk of incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among postmenopausal women in the women's health initiative study. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:2128-2139.
  8. Win S, Parakh K, Eze-Nliam CM, Gottdiener JS, Kop WJ, Ziegelstein RC: Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Heart 2011;97:500-505.
  9. Nemeroff CB, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ: Heartache and heartbreak - the link between depression and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2012;9:526-539.
  10. Whooley MA, Wong JM: Depression and cardiovascular disorders. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2013;9:327-354.
  11. Bostwick JM, Pankratz VS: Affective disorders and suicide risk: a reexamination. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1925-1932.
  12. Berkman LF, Blumenthal J, Burg M, Carney RM, Catellier D, Cowan MJ, Czajkowski SM, DeBusk R, Hosking J, Jaffe A, Kaufmann PG, Mitchell P, Norman J, Powell LH, Raczynski JM, Schneiderman N: Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: the Enhancing Recovery In Coronary Heart Disease patients (ENRICHD) Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289:3106-3116.
  13. Frasure-Smith N, Lespérance F: Depression and anxiety as predictors of 2-year cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:62-71.
  14. Gallo JJ, Bogner HR, Morales KH, Post EP, Lin JY, Bruce ML: The effect of a primary care practice-based depression intervention on mortality in older adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:689-698.
    External Resources
  15. Angell M: The epidemic of mental illness: Why? New York Review of Books 2011, June 23.
  16. Angell M: The illusions of psychiatry. New York Review of Books 2011, July 14.
  17. Bonin R: Treating depression: is there a placebo effect? 60 Minutes. New York, CBS Broadcasting, 2012.
  18. Carvalho AF, Sharma MS, Brunoni AR, Vieta E, Fava GA: The safety, tolerability and risks associated with the use of newer generation antidepressant drugs: a critical review of the literature. Psychother Psychosom 2016;85:270-288.
  19. Fava GA: Rational use of antidepressant drugs. Psychother Psychosom 2014;83:197-204.
  20. Gøtzsche PC, Young AH, Crace J: Does long term use of psychiatric drugs cause more harm than good? BMJ 2015;350:h2435.
  21. Kramer PD: In defense of antidepressants: The New York Times, 2011, pp SR1.
  22. Lacasse JR, Leo J: Serotonin and depression: a disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature. PLoS Med 2005;2:1211-1216.
  23. Moncrieff J, Cohen D: Do antidepressants cure or create abnormal brain states? PLoS Med 2006;3:961-965.
  24. Moncrieff J, Kirsch I: Empirically derived criteria cast doubt on the clinical significance of antidepressant-placebo differences. Contemp Clin Trials 2015;43:60-62.
  25. Moncrieff J: Misrepresenting harms in antidepressant trials. BMJ 2016;352:i217.
  26. Oldham J, Carlat D, Friedman R, Nierenberg M: “The illusions of psychiatry”: an exchange. New York Review of Books 2011, August 18.
  27. Andrews PW, Bharwani A, Lee KR, Fox M, Thomson JA Jr: Is serotonin an upper or a downer? The evolution of the serotonergic system and its role in depression and the antidepressant response. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015;51:164-188.
  28. Best J, Nijhout HF, Reed M: Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model. Theor Biol Med Model 2010;7:34.
  29. Gershon MD, Tack J: The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders. Gastroenterology 2007;132:397-414.
  30. Axelrod J, Inscoe JK: The uptake and binding of circulating serotonin and the effect of drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1963;141:161-165.
    External Resources
  31. Mercado CP, Kilic F: Molecular mechanisms of SERT in platelets: regulation of plasma serotonin levels. Mol Interv 2010;10:231-241.
  32. Lin K-J, Liu C-Y, Wey S-P, Hsiao I-T, Wu J, Fu Y-K, Yen T-C: Brain SPECT imaging and whole-body biodistribution with [123I]ADAM - a serotonin transporter radiotracer in healthy human subjects. Nucl Med Biol 2006;33:193-202.
  33. Lin K-J, Ye X-X, Yen T-C, Wey S-P, Tzen K-Y, Ting G, Hwang J-J: Biodistribution study of [123I] ADAM in mice: correlation with whole body autoradiography. Nucl Med Biol 2002;29:643-650.
  34. Lu J-Q, Ichise M, Liow J-S, Ghose S, Vines D, Innis RB: Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the serotonin transporter ligand 11C-DASB determined from human whole-body PET. J Nucl Med 2004;45:1555-1559.
    External Resources
  35. Newberg AB, Plössl K, Mozley PD, Stubbs JB, Wintering N, Udeshi M, Alavi A, Kauppinen T, Kung HF: Biodistribution and imaging with 123I-ADAM: a serotonin transporter imaging agent. J Nucl Med 2004;45:834-841.
    External Resources
  36. Ducis I, Distefano V: Characterization of serotonin uptake in isolated bovine pinealocyte suspensions. Mol Pharmacol 1980;18:447-454.
    External Resources
  37. Fisher AB, Steinberg H, Bassett MDD: Energy utilization by the lung. Am J Med 1974;57:437-446.
  38. LaRivière L, Anctil M: Uptake and release of [3H]-serotonin in photophores of the midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 1984;78:231-239.
    External Resources
  39. Wong DT, Horng J-S, Fuller RW: Kinetics of serotonin accumulation into synaptosomes of rat brain - effects of amphetamine and chloroamphetamines. Biochem Pharmacol 1973;22:311-322.
  40. Yoffe JR, Borchardt RT: Characterization of serotonin uptake in cultured neuroblastoma cells: difference between differentiated and nondifferentiated cells. Mol Pharmacol 1982;21:362-367.
    External Resources
  41. Azmitia EC: Serotonin and brain: evolution, neuroplasticity, and homeostasis. Pharmacol Neurogen Neuroenhanc 2007;77:31-56.
  42. Durisko Z, Mulsant BH, Andrews PW: An adaptationist perspective on the etiology of depression. J Affect Disord 2015;172:315-323.
  43. Guyton A, Hall J: Rhythmical excitation of the heart; in Gruliow R (ed): Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia, Elsevier, 2006, pp 122.
  44. Tanaka M, Yoshida M, Emoto H, Ishii H: Noradrenaline systems in the hypothalamus, amygdala and locus coeruleus are involved in the provocation of anxiety: basic studies. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;405:397-406.
  45. Basu S, Dasgupta PS: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, influences the immune system. J Neuroimmunol 2000;102:113-124.
  46. Mezey E, Eisenhofer G, Hansson S, Harta G, Hoffman B, Gallatz K, Palkovits M, Hunyady B: Non-neuronal dopamine in the gastrointestinal system. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 1999;26:S14-S22.
    External Resources
  47. Rubí B, Maechler P: Minireview: New roles for peripheral dopamine on metabolic control and tumor growth: let's seek the balance. Endocrinology 2010;151:5570-5581.
  48. Zhang M-Z, Yao B, Wang S, Fan X, Wu G, Yang H, Yin H, Yang S, Harris RC: Intrarenal dopamine deficiency leads to hypertension and decreased longevity in mice. J Clin Invest 2011;121:2845-2854.
  49. Pacher P, Kecskemeti V: Cardiovascular side effects of new antidepressants and antipsychotics: new drugs, old concerns? Curr Pharm Des 2004;10:2463-2475.
    External Resources
  50. Davì G, Patrono C: Platelet activation and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2482-2494.
  51. Heger CD, Collins RN: Platelet activation and “crossover appeal”: rab and rho families united by common links to serotonin. Mol Interv 2004;4:79-81.
  52. Larsson P, Wallen N, Hjemdahl P: Norepinephrine-induced human platelet activation in vivo is only partly counteracted by aspirin. Circulation 1994;89:1951-1957.
  53. Von Känel R, Dimsdale JE: Effects of sympathetic activation by adrenergic infusions on hemostasis in vivo. Eur J Haematol 2000;65:357-369.
  54. Flock A, Zobel A, Bauriedel G, Tuleta I, Hammerstingl C, Hofels S, Schuhmacher A, Maier W, Nickenig G, Skowasch D: Antiplatelet effects of antidepressant treatment: a randomized comparison between escitalopram and nortriptyline. Thromb Res 2010;126:E83-E87.
  55. Andrade C, Sandarsh S, Chethan KB, Nagesh KS: Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: a review for clinicians and a reconsideration of mechanisms. J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71:1565-1575.
  56. Castro VM, Gallagher PJ, Clements CC, Murphy SN, Gainer VS, Fava M, Weilburg JB, Churchill SE, Kohane IS, Iosifescu DV, Smoller JW, Perlis RH: Incident user cohort study of risk for gastrointestinal bleed and stroke in individuals with major depressive disorder treated with antidepressants. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000544.
  57. Coupland C, Dhiman D, Morriss R, Arthur A, Barton G, Hippisley-Cox J: Antidepressant use and risk of adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study. BMJ 2011;343:d4551.
  58. Hackam DG, Mrkobrada M: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and brain hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Neurology 2012;79:1862-1865.
  59. Buckley NA, McManus PR: Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of United Kingdom mortality data. BMJ 2002;325:1332-1333.
    External Resources
  60. Cosci F, Guidi J, Balon R, Fava GA: Clinical methodology matters in epidemiology: not all benzodiazepines are the same. Psychother Psychosom 2015;84:262-264.
  61. Fava GA, Guidi J, Rafanelli C, Sonino N: The clinical inadequacy of evidence-based medicine and the need for a conceptual framework based on clinical judgment. Psychother Psychosom 2015;84:1-3.
  62. Jane-wit D, Horwitz RI, Concato J: Variation in results from randomized, controlled trials: stochastic or systematic? J Clin Epidemiol 2010;63:56-63.
  63. Bakkaloglu B, Yabanoglu S, Ozyuksel BR, Uaar G, Ertugrul A, Demir B, Ulug B: Platelet and plasma serotonin levels and platelet monoamine oxidase activity in patients with major depression: effects of sertraline treatment. Turk J Biochem 2008;33:97-103.
  64. Most JF, Possick J, Rochester CL: Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Pulm Med 2014;21:155-166.
    External Resources
  65. Musselman DL, Marzec UM, Manatunga A, Penna S, Reemsnyder A, Knight BT, Baron A, Hanson SR, Nemeroff CB: Platelet reactivity in depressed patients treated with paroxetine: preliminary findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:875-882.
  66. Paneni F, Beckman JA, Creager MA, Cosentino F: Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: part I. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2436-2443.
  67. Sarnak MJ, Levey AS: Cardiovascular disease and chronic renal disease: a new paradigm. Am J Kidney Dis 2000;35:S117-S131.
    External Resources
  68. Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Arndt S, Starkstein S: Mortality and poststroke depression: a placebo-controlled trial of antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:1823-1829.
  69. Qian J, Simoni-Wastila L, Langenberg P, Rattinger GB, Zuckerman IH, Lehmann S, Terrin M: Effects of depression diagnosis and antidepressant treatment on mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2013;61:754-761.
  70. Taylor C, Youngblood ME, Catellier D, Veith RC, Carney RM, Burg MM, Kaufman PG, Shuster J, Mellman T, Blumenthal JA, Krishnan R: Effects of antidepressant medication on morbidity and mortality in depressed patients after myocardial infarction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:792-798.
  71. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, Moher D, Becker BJ, Sipe TA, Thacker SB: Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000;283:2008-2012.
    External Resources
  72. O'Connor CM, Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Mehta RH, Clary GL, Cuffe MS, Christopher EJ, Alexander JD, Califf RM, Krishnan RR: Antidepressant use, depression, and survival in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:2232-2237.
  73. Ghassemi M, Marshall J, Singh N, Stone DJ, Celi LA: Leveraging a critical care database: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use prior to ICU admission is associated with increased hospital mortality. Chest 2014;145:745-752.
  74. Higgins JPT, Green S: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.0. Cochrane Collaboration, 2011, www.cochrane-handbook.org.
  75. Downs SH, Black N: The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;52:377-384.
  76. Acharya T, Acharya S, Tringali S, Huang J: Association of antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic use with cardiovascular events and mortality in a veteran population. Pharmacotherapy 2013;33:1053-1061.
  77. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143-3421.
    External Resources
  78. Khan A, Faucett J, Morrison S, Brown WA: Comparative mortality risk in adult patients with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder participating in psychopharmacology clinical trials. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70:1091-1099.
  79. Ryan J, Carriere I, Ritchie K, Stewart R, Toulemonde G, Dartigues J-F, Tzourio C, Ancelin M-L: Late-life depression and mortality: influence of gender and antidepressant use. Br J Psychiatry 2008;192:12-18.
  80. Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG: Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;327:557-560.
  81. Cook RD, Weisberg S: Residuals and Influence in Regression. New York, Chapman & Hall, 1982.
  82. Viechtbauer W: Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Softw 2010;36:1-48.
  83. Planer D, Lev I, Elitzur Y, Sharon N, Ouzan E, Pugatsch T, Chasid M, Rom M, Lotan C: Bupropion for smoking cessation in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:1055-1060.
  84. Sterne JAC, Sutton AJ, Ioannidis JPA, Terrin N, Jones DR, Lau J, Carpenter J, Rücker G, Harbord RM, Schmid CH, Tetzlaff J, Deeks JJ, Peters J, Macaskill P, Schwarzer G, Duval S, Altman DG, Moher D, Higgins JPT: Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2011;343:d4002.
  85. Balogun RA, Abdel-Rahman EM, Balogun SA, Lott EH, Lu JL, Malakauskas SM, Ma JZ, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kovesdy CP: Association of depression and antidepressant use with mortality in a large cohort of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;7:1793-1800.
  86. Hanash JA, Hansen BH, Hansen JF, Nielsen OW, Rasmussen A, Birket-Smith M: Cardiovascular safety of one-year escitalopram therapy in clinically nondepressed patients with acute coronary syndrome: results from the DEpression in patients with Coronary ARtery Disease (DECARD) trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012;60:397-405.
  87. O'Connor CM, Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Silva SG, Cuffe MS, Callwood DD, Zakhary B, Stough WG, Arias RM, Rivelli SK, Krishnan R: Safety and efficacy of sertraline for depression in patients with heart failure: results of the SADHART-CHF (Sertraline Against Depression and Heart Disease in Chronic Heart Failure) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:692-699.
  88. Cumming G: The new statistics: why and how. Psychol Sci 2014;25:7-29.
  89. Sharma T, Guski LS, Freund N, Gøtzsche PC: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports. BMJ 2016;352:i65.
  90. Gaukler SM, Ruff JS, Galland T, Kandaris KA, Underwood TK, Liu NM, Young EL, Morrison LC, Yost GS, Potts WK: Low-dose paroxetine exposure causes lifetime declines in male mouse body weight, reproduction and competitive ability as measured by the novel organismal performance assay. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015;47:46-53.
  91. Swinkels JA, de Jonghe F: Safety of antidepressants. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;9:19-25.
  92. Sherwood A, Blumenthal JA, Trivedi R, Johnson KS, O'Connor CM, Adams KF, Dupree CS, Waugh RA, Bensimhon DR, Gaulden L: Relationship of depression to death or hospitalization in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:367-373.
  93. Anda R, Williamson D, Jones D, Macera C, Eaker E, Glassman A, Marks J: Depressed affect, hopelessness, and the risk of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of US adults. Epidemiology 1993;4:285-294.
    External Resources
  94. Andrews PW, Kornstein SG, Halberstadt LJ, Gardner CO, Neale MC: Blue again: perturbational effects of antidepressants suggest monoaminergic homeostasis in major depression. Front Psychol 2011;2:159.
  95. Fava GA, Offidani E: The mechanisms of tolerance in antidepressant action. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011;35:1593-1602.
  96. Hollon SD: The efficacy and acceptability of psychological interventions for depression: where we are now and where we are going. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2016;25:295-300.
  97. Higgins J, Thompson SG: Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002;21:1539-1558.
  98. Rudisch B, Nemeroff CB: Epidemiology of comorbid coronary artery disease and depression. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54:227-240.
  99. Cohen S, Pressman SD: Positive affect and health. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2006;15:122-125.
  100. Fava GA, Cosci F, Sonino N: Current psychosomatic practice. Psychother Psychosom 2017;86:13-30.
  101. Mojtabai R, Olfson M: Proportion of antidepressants prescribed without a psychiatric diagnosis is growing. Health Aff (Millwood) 2011;30:1434-1442.
  102. Diez-Quevedo C, Lupón J, González B, Urrutia A, Cano L, Cabanes R, Altimir S, Coll R, Pascual T, de Antonio M, Bayes-Genis A: Depression, antidepressants, and long-term mortality in heart failure. Int J Cardiol 2013;167:1217-1225.
  103. Krantz DS, Whittaker KS, Francis JL, Rutledge T, Johnson BD, Barrow G, McClure C, Sheps DS, York K, Cornell C, Bittner V: Psychotropic medication use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in women with suspected coronary artery disease: outcomes from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. Heart 2009;95:1901-1906.
  104. Hamer M, Batty GD, Seldenrijk A, Kivimaki M: Antidepressant medication use and future risk of cardiovascular disease: the Scottish Health Survey. Eur Heart J 2011;32:437-442.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Regular Article

Received: November 09, 2016
Accepted: May 30, 2017
Published online: September 14, 2017

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PPS