Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Guidelines for Authors

Plagiarism Policy
Color Illustrations
Cover Illustration
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Supplementary Material
Vertebrate Animals
Further Suggestions
Self-Archiving/Green Open Access, Author's ChoiceTM,
   Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)

Page Charges
E-pub First


'Brain, Behavior and Evolution' publishes original articles on the structure, function and evolution of nervous systems in vertebrates and invertebrates. Submissions must focus on neurobiology; papers that primarily address behavioral data or functional morphology will generally not be considered.

Submitted papers need not be integrative or multidisciplinary, but they should contribute to a broader understanding of brain evolution by providing information on the structure and/or function of nervous systems that is relevant from a comparative or evolutionary perspective.

The journal will consider review papers, theoretical papers and symposia proceedings, as well as original research reports; authors are welcome to contact the editor prior to submission to determine if their work is appropriate for the journal. In all cases, relevance and merit are the criteria for acceptance.


Only original papers written in English are considered.

If English is not the first language of the author(s), it is strongly recommended that an English-speaking colleague be asked to go over the paper before it is submitted.

Manuscripts should be submitted online.

Should you experience any problems with your submission, please contact

Lara Grieder
Editorial Office 'Brain, Behavior and Evolution'
S. Karger AG
P.O. Box
CH–4009 Basel (Switzerland)
Tel. +41 61 306 1356
Fax +41 61 306 1434


All manuscripts are subject to editorial review. Manuscripts are received with the explicit understanding that they are not under simultaneous consideration by any other publication.

Submission of a manuscript for publication implies the transfer of copyright from the author to the publisher upon acceptance. Accepted papers become the permanent property of 'Brain, Behavior and Evolution' and may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the publisher.

For legal reasons, we must receive your 'Submission Statement' with your original (hand-written) signature. Please download, print, sign and either fax or scan it to make it legally binding.

It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce illustrations, tables, etc. from other publications.

Plagiarism Policy

Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. We define plagiarism as a case in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation.
If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).


Automatic line numbering should be used, continuous from the title page through to the final page.

Title page: The first page of each paper should indicate the title, the authors' names, the institute where the work was conducted, and a short title for use as running head. The number of figures and tables should also be indicated.
NB: Authors wishing to preserve the phonetic meaning of diacritics (PubMed reduces diacritics to their root characters) must spell their names accordingly when submitting manuscripts (e.g. Müller should be Mueller).

Full address: The exact postal address of the corresponding author complete with postal code must be given at the bottom of the title page. Please also supply phone and fax numbers, as well as e-mail address.

Key words: A list of 3–10 key words should be included for indexing purposes. Key words used in the title must be repeated here.

Abstract: The abstract should be restricted to 1 page and should summarize the entire paper, including the results. The term 'will be discussed' should be avoided, as should abbreviations and citations.

Text: The text of the manuscript should comprise the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Within each section, successive levels of subheadings (if used) should be clearly distinguished.
Acknowledgments (if appropriate) should be added at the end of the text.
Footnotes should be avoided; if essential, they should be numbered consecutively and typed at the bottom of the appropriate page.
Citations in the text should be enclosed in brackets and should comprise the name(s) of the author(s) – use 'et al.' when there are three or more – and the year of publication, in chronological order. Work in preparation is formally cited as '[unpublished observations]', and these are assumed to be those of all (and only) the authors. If otherwise, first initials and last names should be used, as for '[personal communication]' from a colleague, as neither appears in the References.

Tables: Each table should bear a heading incorporating the table number (in Arabic numerals) and title; if necessary, a key to symbols in the table should appear beneath the table.

Figure legends: Figure legends should be numbered and listed in order. If a figure has more than one part, the legend should begin with a short description of the figure as a whole before each individual frame is described or referred to.

Figures: Illustrations for publication must be professional quality drawings or photographs; negatives can not be used. Due to technical reasons, figures with a screen background should not be submitted. Electronically submitted b/w half-tone and color illustrations must have a final resolution of 300 dpi after scaling, line drawings one of 800–1200 dpi.

Color Illustrations

Online edition: Color illustrations are reproduced free of charge. In the print version, the illustrations are reproduced in black and white. Please avoid referring to the colors in the text and figure legends.

Print edition: Up to 6 color illustrations per page can be integrated within the text at CHF 960.00 per page.

Cover Illustration

Authors may submit a suggested cover illustration after a paper has been accepted. Suggested illustrations may be black and white drawings or photographs, and must be accompanied by a one-sentence caption.


In the text identify references by authors' names and year of publication in parentheses. The list of references should be ordered alphabetically according to the first author's surname of each reference. The surnames of the authors followed by initials should be given. Preferably, please cite all authors. These should be followed by the year in parentheses, the title, journal, volume and complete pagination. Abbreviate journal names according to the Index Medicus system.


(a) Papers published in periodicals: Sun J, Koto H, Chung KF (1997): Interaction of ozone and allergen challenges on bronchial responsiveness and inflammation in sensitised guinea pigs. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 112:191–195.

(b) Monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT (1996): Using and Understanding Medical Statistics, ed 3, revised. Basel, Karger.

(c) Edited books: Parren PWHI, Burton DR (1997): Antibodies against HIV-1 from phage display libraries: mapping of an immune response and progress towards antiviral immunotherapy; in Capra JD (ed): Antibody Engineering. Chem Immunol. Basel, Karger, vol 65, pp 18–56.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

S. Karger Publishers supports DOIs as unique identifiers for articles. A DOI number will be printed on the title page of each article. DOIs can be useful in the future for identifying and citing articles published online without volume or issue information. More information can be found at www.doi.org.

Supplementary Material

Multimedia files and other supplementary files, directly relevant but not essential to the conclusions of a paper, enhance the online version of a publication and increase its visibility on the web. These files will undergo editorial review. The Editors reserve the right to limit the scope and length of the supplementary material. Multimedia and supplementary material should meet production quality standards for publication without the need for any modification or editing. Files should not exceed 10 MB in size. Figures and tables need to have titles and legends, and all files should be supplied separately and labeled clearly. All supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. A DOI number will be assigned to supplementary material and it will be hosted online at https://karger.figshare.com under a CC BY license. Authors will be charged a processing fee of CHF 250.00 for supplementary material.

Vertebrate Animals

If vertebrate animals are involved, the author should complete and include in the Materials and Methods section a statement similar to the following example.
'The original research reported herein was performed under guidelines established by ...'

Further Suggestions for the Preparation of Manuscripts

Abbreviations should not be over-used in the text. In any case, a term should be written out the first time it is used and the abbreviation established in parentheses. Abbreviations should never be used to begin a sentence.

Single authors should avoid the use of the first person plural, and all authors should give careful thought to the use of tense. For example, information may flow more smoothly to the reader if the present tense is reserved for established phenomena and the past tense used for the results being reported. Similarly, the active voice is usually preferable to the passive voice.

Authors should also give thought to exact word usage. Taxonomic names and precise biological terms should be used to refer to animal groups, and vague, subjective descriptors such as 'higher' and 'lower' should be avoided. Similarly, the descriptive prefixes paleo-, archi-, and neo- applied to cerebellum, cortex, or striatum imply an invalid phylogenetic sequence and should also be avoided.

In addition, authors should refrain from the use of invalid typological concepts. Instead of 'the fish', a more accurate and specific category is preferable: 'the channel catfish', 'silurid catfishes', 'all teleosts examined to date', or 'most actinopterygian fishes', for example.

Authors are also reminded that, by definition, there are no living primitive animals, only living animals with features that are either primitive or derived, which can be determined only by appropriate phylogenetic analysis.

Page Charges

There are no charges for papers of 10 or fewer printed pages (including tables, illustrations and references). Each additional complete or partial page is charged to the author at CHF 325.00 if the author's institution does not carry a current institutional subscription to the journal.

As the page charges are waived in any case for the first paper each year to be published by a member of The J.B. Johnston Club for Evolutionary Neuroscience, authors who are members of JBJC should so indicate on the title page.


Unless indicated otherwise, proofs are sent to the corresponding author and should be returned with the least possible delay. Alterations other than the correction of printer's errors are charged to the author.

E-pub First

All articles are published electronically ahead of print with a DOI number and are supplemented later with the definite reference of the printed version. The articles become available immediately after the authors' approval to publication, with the added advantage of being citable much earlier than in print. Authors can influence the time of appearance by promptly returning the proofs.


Order forms and a price list for reprints are sent with the proofs. Orders submitted after the issue is printed are subject to considerably higher prices.

Self-Archiving/Green Open Access

Karger permits authors to archive their pre-prints (i.e. pre-peer review) or post-prints (i.e. accepted manuscript after peer review but before production) on their personal or their institution’s internal website. In addition, authors may post their accepted manuscripts in public Open Access repositories and scientific networks (e.g. ResearchGate or Mendeley) no earlier than 12 months following publication of the final version of their article. For all self-archiving, the posted manuscripts must:

  • Be used for noncommercial purposes only
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘This is the peer-reviewed but unedited manuscript version of the following article: [insert full citation, e.g. Cytogenet Genome Res 2014;142:227–238 (DOI: 10.1159/000361001)]. The final, published version is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central due to funding requirements will be submitted by Karger on the author’s behalf [see Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)].

For self-archiving Author's ChoiceTM (Gold Open Access) articles, see Author's ChoiceTM.

Author's ChoiceTM

Karger’s Author's ChoiceTM service broadens the reach of your article and gives all users worldwide free and full access for reading, downloading and printing at www.karger.com. The option is available for a one-time fee of CHF 3,000.00, which is a permissible cost in grant allocation. More information can be found at www.karger.com/authors_choice.
The final, published version of the article may be posted at any time and in any repository or on other websites, in accordance with the relevant Creative Commons license. Reposted Open Access articles must:

  • Follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘The final, published version of this article is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)

The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates that accepted, peer-reviewed manuscripts are archived in its digital database, PubMed Central (PMC), within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger submits NIH-funded articles to PMC on behalf of the authors immediately upon publication. The NIH assigns a PMCID within approximately 1 month and the manuscript will appear in PMC after a 12-month embargo. For authors making their paper Open Access through Author's ChoiceTM, the embargo will be overridden, thereby accelerating the accessibility of the article. Karger also complies with other funders’ requirements (including Wellcome Trust and RCUK) for submission to PMC.
Authors should include information on their grant in the Acknowledgements section of their papers.


Prospective authors are advised to use the Index Medicus as a reference for the appropriate abbreviation of journal names. The following list of abbreviations covers some of the most frequently cited journals in 'Brain, Behavior and Evolution'.

Using abbreviations correctly could expedite the processing of your manuscripts.

Questions relating to this list should be directed to the Editorial Office (bbe@karger.com).

Journal Abbreviations

Abstr Int Behav Neurosci Soc
Acta Biol Benrodis Suppl
Acta Hydrobiol Sin
Acta Morphol Acad Sci Hung
Acta Morphol Neerl Scand
Acta Neuropathol
Acta Otolaryngol
Acta Zool
Acta Zool Fenn
Acta Zool Stockh
Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol
Adv Otorhinolaryngol
Aggress Behav
Am Fish Soc Symp
Am J Anat
Am J Phys Anthropol
Am J Physiol
Am J Sci
Am Mus Nov
Am Nat
Am Sci
Am Zool
Anat Anz
Anat Embryol
Anat Rec
Anim Behav
Ann NY Acad Sci
Annu Rev Ecol Syst
Annu Rev Neurosci
Arch Anat Entwicklung
Arch Anat Physiol
Arch Dev Biol
Arch Int Physiol Biochim
Arch Ital Biol
Arch Neurol
Assoc Res Otolaryngol
Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr
Behav Brain Res
Behav Neurosci
Behav Res Methods Instrum Bioacoustics
Biol J Linn Soc
Biol Bull
Biol Cybern
Biol Psychiatry
Biol Reprod
Biol Rev
Biophys Chem
Biophys J
Bonn Zool Beitr
Brain Behav Evol
Brain Res Bull
Brain Res Rev
Br Med Bull
Bull Am Mus Nat Hist
Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish
Bull Marine Sci
Bull Mus Comp Zool
Bull Seismol Soc Am
Can J Zool
Cell Tissue Res
Cerebr Cortex
Chem Sens
Chin Sci Bull
Commun Behav Biol
Comp Biochem Physiol
Comp Primate Biol
Contrib Marine Sci
Contrib Sens Physiol
Curr Biol
Dana Rep
Dev Biol
Dev Brain Res
Dev Dyn
Dev Genet
Entomol Gen
Environ Biol Fish
Eur J Biochem
Eur J Neurosci
Evol Biol
Exp Anim
Exp Biol
Exp Brain Res
Exp Eye Res
Exp Neurol
Fed Proc
Fieldiana Zool
Fish Bull
Fish Wildl Ag
Folia Morphol
Folia Primatol
Forma Funct
Fortschr Zool
Gen Comp Endocrinol
Genes Dev
Hear Res
Herpetol Monogr
Histol Histopathol
Horm Behav
Hum Biol
Hum Neurobiol
Int J Biometeorol
Int J Dev Biol
Invest Cetacea
Invest Ophthalmol
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Isr J Biol
J Acoust Soc Am
J Anat
J Anat Lond
J Anat Physiol
J Aud Res
J Brain Res
J Cell Biol
J Cell Sci
J Chem Neuroanat
J Cogn Neurosci
J Comp Neurol
J Comp Physiol A
J Comp Physiol B
J Comp Physiol Psychol
J Comp Psychol
J Endocrinol
J Evol Biochem Physiol
J Evol Biol
J Exp Biol
J Exp Neurol
J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process
J Exp Zool
J Fish Biol
J Fish Res Can
J Gen Psychol
J Herpetol
J Hirnforsch
J Hist Biol
J Histochem Cytochem
J Hum Evol
J Insect Behav
J Insect Physiol
J Linn Soc Zool
J Mammal
J Mol Evol
J Morphol
J Morphol Suppl
J Mot Behav
J Natl Inst Health Res
J Neurobiol
J Neurocyol
J Neurophysiol
J Neurosci
J Neurosci Methods
J Nutr Suppl
J NW Atl Fish Sci
J Opt Soc Am
J Philos
J Physiol
J Physiol Lond
J Soc Biol Struct
J Theor Biol
J Therm Biol
J Ultrastruct Res
J Vestib Res
J World Aquat Soc
J Zool
Jen Z Naturwiss
Jpn Poult Sci
Lincei Mem Sci Fisiol Eccol
Lincei Rend Sci Fisiol Mat Nat Mammalogy
Marine Mamm Sci
Marine Ecol Prog Ser
Marine Fresh Behav Physiol Mechs Dev
Mém Mus Nat Hist Natl Paris
Microsc Acta
Microsc Res Tech
Mol Biol Evol
Mol Brain Res
Misc Publ Mus Zool Univ Mich
Mol Endocrinol
Nat Biotechnol
Naturforsch Ärzte
Neth J Zool
Neurobiol Learn Mem
Neurosci Behav Physiol Neurosci Biobehav Rev
Neurosci Lett
Nobel Symp
Ohio J Sci
Pac Sci
Pflügers Arch
Physiol Behav
Philosophic Trans R Soc Lond B
Physiol Behav Sci
Physiol Entomol
Physiol Rev
Physiol Zool
Poult Avian Biol Rev
Poult Sci
Proc Acad Sci Amst
Proc Aust Neurosci Soc
Proc Calif Acad Sci
Proc Natl Acad Sci
Proc R Soc Lond B
Proc Soc Exp Biol Med
Proc Zool Soc
Prog Brain Res
Prog Retinal Res
Prog Neurobiol
Psych Forsch
Prog Psychobiol Physiol Psychol
Psychol Monogr
Psychonom Sci
Pubbl Stn Zool Napoli
Q Rev Biol
Res Dev
Rev Can Biol
Sci Sin
Semin Neurosci
Smithson Misc Coll
Soc Neurosci Abstr
Spec Publ Am Soc Mammal
Symp Soc Exp Biol
Syst Bot
Trans Am Fish Soc
Trab Lab Invest Biol Univ Madr
Trends Genet
Trends Neurosci
Univ Kansas Mus Nat Hist
Verh Zool Ges
Vis Neurosci
Vision Res
Yearb Phys Anthropol
Z Anat Enwicklungsgesch
Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch
Z Morphol Anthropol
Z Morphol Okol Tiere
Z Morphol Tiere
Z Vergl Physiol
Z Wiss Zool
Z Zellforsch
Z Zool Syst Evol Forsch
Zh Evol Biokhim Fisiol
Zool Beitr
Zool J Linn Soc
Zool Jahrb
Zool Jahrb Anat
Zool Jahrb Physiol
Zool Mag Tokyo
Zool Sci