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Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

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Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation

Guidelines for Authors

Categories of Manuscripts
Plagiarism Policy
Color Illustrations
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Supplementary Material
Self-Archiving/Green Open Access, Author's ChoiceTM,
   Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)

Page Charges
E-pub First


Manuscripts written in English should be submitted online.

Should you experience any problems with your submission, please contact:

Laura Gruetter
Editorial Office 'Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation'
S. Karger AG
P.O. Box
CH-4009 Basel (Switzerland)
Tel. +41 61 306 1343
Fax +41 61 306 1434

Names, postal and e-mail addresses of four experts in the appropriate area of research should accompany each manuscript. Referees suggested should not be from the same institute as the authors and, preferably, not from the same country.

Presentation of manuscripts should conform with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (see N Engl J Med 1997;336:309–315).

All manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter signed by all authors. Assurance should be given that the manuscript is not under simultaneous consideration by any other publication.

All manuscripts originating from non-English-speaking countries must be revised by a professional linguistic reviewer and it must be evident from the covering letter that this has been done.


All manuscripts are subject to editorial review.

Submission of an article for publication implies the transfer of the copyright from the author to the publisher upon acceptance. Accepted papers become the permanent property of ‘Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation’ and may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce illustrations, tables, etc. from other publications.

For legal reasons, we must receive your 'Submission Statement' with your original (hand-written) signature. Please download, print, sign and either fax or scan it to make it legally binding.

Good clinical practice: It has become mandatory that every trial in humans must first obtain approval from an independent Ethics Committee and formal, informed consent from the patients before they participate in a clinical study or experiment. In order to avoid unnecessary delay with the review of manuscripts, authors are asked to state, preferably in the Materials and Methods section, that approval and informed consent have been obtained. These two statements must also appear on the covering letter which accompanies every manuscript and is signed by each author.

Categories of Manuscripts

Original Articles should not exceed 4 printed pages (3,000 words or approx. 9 manuscript pages double-spaced), including tables, illustrations and references.

Letters to the Editor: This section is set aside for critical comments directed to a specific article that has been published in the journal. Letters should be brief (not exceeding 500 words), double spaced and limited to a maximum of 5 citations. The letters and replies should be prepared according to journal format. Illustrative material is only permitted with permission of the Editor-in-Chief. With your correspondence, please include your complete mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and email addresses, if available. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to refuse letters, shorten letters, delete objectional comments, and make other changes to to comply with the style of the journal. Send all Letters to the Editor to the above address.

Summaries of PhD Theses: A Summary of a PhD Thesis is supposed to give a review of the different papers that are part of a particular PhD thesis which has been successfully defended within the last 3 years.The review should have at least 6,000 words and a maximum of 10,000 words of text with a maximum of 200 references, 5 tables and 5 figures. Considerable emphasis should be given to an overall systematic discussion of the PhD findings, and their implication for clinical practice and/or research.

Novel Insights from Clinical Practice: This category replaces the previous
Case Report section. We invite contributions to this section that provide novel insight into a clinical problem.

We recognize the value of case reports and thus submissions can be based around a case or a number of similar cases. The most important aspect of the presentation is that it should provide a new perspective on a recognized clinical scenario or may represent an entirely new clinical condition. The novel aspects of the case(s) may be in the phenotype, the presentation, the investigation and/or the management.

We propose that a highlighted box containing one or two bullet points on 'Established Facts' (what is already known) and 'Novel Insights' (what new information has been gained) be placed on the first page of the report. This will reinforce the novelty of the clinical observation.


Established Facts

  ·    Already known fact 1 ...     

  ·    Already known fact 2 ...

  ·     ...

Novel Insights

  ·    New information 1 ...         

  ·    New information 2 ...

  ·     ...

The manuscript should be presented with an unstructured abstract (max. 200 words), brief introduction, case or case series description and results, followed by a discussion. Maximum 3 figures.

Reviews are welcome; the Editor-in-Chief is happy to discuss potential articles with authors who would like to contribute.

Systematic Reviews
For systematic reviews of studies examining interventions or diagnostic procedures, we refer to the Cochrane Collaboration (www.Cochrane.org). As they represent 'the state of the art', they provide an exceptionally useful handbook. Systematic reviews need not only be the results of intervention s tudies but can be made on all kinds of research questions, even those that can only be answered by non-experimental studies or interpretive research. For example, a systematic review can be made on qualitative studies – for the 'Qualitative method group' of reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration is a useful information source.
All systematic reviews must take and document the following steps:
  1. Specification of a research question. A systematic review addresses a specific question rather than provides a general summary of the literature on a topic of interest as is in a traditional review, e.g. for an intervention study it must specify population, intervention, control group and outcome.
  2. Development of a review protocol. Systematic reviews use a specified method that is planned beforehand and documented in a review protocol to avoid the risk of bias. A review protocol describes the complete review process, including research questions, literature search strategy, selection criteria, criteria for evaluation of methodological quality and how data will be summarized.
  3. Systematic literature search. For a systematic review, the search strategy for the literature should be reported and should be repeatable. It includes several steps: a literature search to identify optimal key search terms, databases and search strategy; the search itself; the search of the reference lists of all included studies for the identification of additional studies (snowball method).
  4. Selection of relevant studies. This must be done on the basis of selection criteria (e.g. populations, outcome measures, ... to include/exclude) described in the protocol. It protects the review from investigator bias, e.g. (un)consciously including studies on the basis of their results.
  5. Evaluation of the methodological quality of each study. The quality of a systematic review depends on the quality of the studies included. Therefore, all studies must be assessed for methodological rigor because the results are only valid if the methods are. Critical appraisal of all studies must be reported and, depending on the research design, categories must be specified.
  6. Data collection from individual studies. The data that must be collected depends on the research question and must overcome the different methods of reporting and presenting data in the individual studies. It is useful to use a tool such as a literature table.
  7. Synthesis of the findings. The aim of this phase is to summarize the findings from individual studies in an objective manner. The technique depends on the type of studies included. Under certain circumstances (same question, same population, same administration of the intervention, same outcome), the results of experimental studies can be pooled by meta-analysis. The results of nonexperimental studies relating to a phenomenon of interest can be summarized in a meta-synthesis which is an interpretive rather than a cumulative exercise used in meta-analysis.
Narrative Reviews
If the authors are of the opinion that a systematic review is not possible for a specific topic/clinical question, they may opt for a narrative review. For narrative reviews, authors are also requested to have an appropriately formulated research question, to specify their literature search, to carefully consider and discuss the methodological quality of all studies included, and to give an objective summary of the results and conclusion. Narrative reviews need to contain at least the following items:
  • Key words used in the electronic search
  • Identification of electronic database(s) searched by authors
  • Exact definition of time period of publications searched by authors (start and end dates)
  • Number of relevant titles identified by authors
  • Number of published abstracts read by authors
  • Number of full papers read by authors
  • Number of cases published in international peer-reviewed literature (if review on case reports)
  • Reason for inclusion or exclusion by authors of specific publications
  • Summary table of included publications allowing comparison regarding significant findings
  • Summary statement taking into account all available evidence

Joanna Briggs Institute: An Introduction to Systematic Reviews. Changing practice, 2001, vol 2, issue 1. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from www.joannabriggs.edu.au.
Evans D, Pearson A: Systematic reviews: gatekeepers of nursing knowledge. J Clin Nurs 2001;10:593-599.
Polit DF Beck CT: Nursing Research: Principles and Methods, ed 7. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.

Plagiarism Policy

Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. We define plagiarism as a case in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation.
If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).


All manuscript pages and all the page lines should be numbered. The pages should be consecutively numbered beginning with the title page, then the text, acknowledgements, references and legends to figures. The text in original papers should be divided under the headings: Abstract, Introduction, Material(s) and Method(s), Results, and Discussion.

Title page: The first page of each paper should indicate the title, the authors' names, the institute where the work was conducted, and a short title for use as running head.

Full address: The exact postal address of the corresponding author complete with postal code must be given at the bottom of the title page. Please also supply phone and fax numbers, as well as e-mail address.

Key words: Please supply 3–10 key words in English that reflect the content of the paper.

Abstract: Each paper needs an abstract of up to 200 words.
It should be organized as follows:
Background/Aims: What is the major problem that prompted the study?
Methods: How was the study performed?
Results: Most important findings?
Conclusion: Most important conclusion?

Footnotes: Avoid footnotes. When essential, they are numbered consecutively and typed at the foot of the appropriate page.

Tables and illustrations: Tables and illustrations (both numbered in Arabic numerals) should be prepared on separate pages. Tables require a heading and figures a legend, also prepared on a separate page. For technical reasons, figures with a screen background should not be submitted. When possible, group several illustrations on one block for reproduction (max. size 180 x 223 mm) or provide crop marks. Electronically submitted b/w half-tone and color illustrations must have a final resolution of 300 dpi after scaling, line drawings one of 800-1200 dpi. Figure files must not be embedded in a document file but submitted separately (see Online Submission Instructions).

Color Illustrations

Online edition: Color illustrations are reproduced free of charge. In the print version, the illustrations are reproduced in black and white. Please avoid referring to the colors in the text and figure legends.

Print edition: Up to 6 color illustrations per page can be integrated within the text at CHF 960.00 per page.


In the text identify references by Arabic numerals [in square brackets]. Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be noted as ‘unpublished data’ and not be included in the reference list. The list of references should include only those publications which are cited in the text. Do not alphabetize; number references in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. The surnames of the authors followed by initials should be given. There should be no punctuation other than a comma to separate the authors. Preferably, please cite all authors. Abbreviate journal names according to the Index Medicus system. Also see International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (www.icmje.org).


(a) Papers published in periodicals: Sun J, Koto H, Chung KF: Interaction of ozone and allergen challenges on bronchial responsiveness and inflammation in sensitised guinea pigs. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;112:191–195.

(b) Papers published only with DOI numbers: Theoharides TC, Boucher W, Spear K: Serum interleukin-6 reflects disease severity and osteoporosis in mastocytosis patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol DOI: 10.1159/000063858.

(c) Monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Understanding Medical Statistics, ed 3, revised. Basel, Karger, 1996.

(d) Edited books: Parren PWHI, Burton DR: Antibodies against HIV-1 from phage display libraries: Mapping of an immune response and progress towards antiviral immunotherapy; in Capra JD (ed): Antibody Engineering. Chem Immunol. Basel, Karger, 1997, vol 65, pp 18–56.

Reference Management Software: Use of EndNote is recommended for easy management and formatting of citations and reference lists.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

S. Karger Publishers supports DOIs as unique identifiers for articles. A DOI number will be printed on the title page of each article. DOIs can be useful in the future for identifying and citing articles published online without volume or issue information. More information can be found at www.doi.org

Supplementary Material

Multimedia files and other supplementary files, directly relevant but not essential to the conclusions of a paper, enhance the online version of a publication and increase its visibility on the web. These files will undergo editorial review. The Editors reserve the right to limit the scope and length of the supplementary material. Multimedia and supplementary material should meet production quality standards for publication without the need for any modification or editing. Files should not exceed 10 MB in size. Figures and tables need to have titles and legends, and all files should be supplied separately and labeled clearly. All supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. A DOI number will be assigned to supplementary material and it will be hosted online at https://karger.figshare.com under a CC BY license. Authors will be charged a processing fee of CHF 250.00 for supplementary material.

Self-Archiving/Green Open Access

Karger permits authors to archive their pre-prints (i.e. pre-peer review) or post-prints (i.e. accepted manuscript after peer review but before production) on their personal or their institution’s internal website. In addition, authors may post their accepted manuscripts in public Open Access repositories and scientific networks (e.g. ResearchGate or Mendeley) no earlier than 12 months following publication of the final version of their article. For all self-archiving, the posted manuscripts must:

  • Be used for noncommercial purposes only
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘This is the peer-reviewed but unedited manuscript version of the following article: [insert full citation, e.g. Cytogenet Genome Res 2014;142:227–238 (DOI: 10.1159/000361001)]. The final, published version is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central due to funding requirements will be submitted by Karger on the author’s behalf [see Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)].

For self-archiving Author's ChoiceTM (Gold Open Access) articles, see Author's ChoiceTM.

Author's ChoiceTM

Karger’s Author's ChoiceTM service broadens the reach of your article and gives all users worldwide free and full access for reading, downloading and printing at www.karger.com. The option is available for a one-time fee of CHF 3,000.00, which is a permissible cost in grant allocation. More information can be found at www.karger.com/authors_choice.
The final, published version of the article may be posted at any time and in any repository or on other websites, in accordance with the relevant Creative Commons license. Reposted Open Access articles must:

  • Follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘The final, published version of this article is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)

The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates that accepted, peer-reviewed manuscripts are archived in its digital database, PubMed Central (PMC), within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger submits NIH-funded articles to PMC on behalf of the authors immediately upon publication. The NIH assigns a PMCID within approximately 1 month and the manuscript will appear in PMC after a 12-month embargo. For authors making their paper Open Access through Author's ChoiceTM, the embargo will be overridden, thereby accelerating the accessibility of the article. Karger also complies with other funders’ requirements (including Wellcome Trust and RCUK) for submission to PMC.
Authors should include information on their grant in the Acknowledgements section of their papers.

Page Charges

Each additional complete or partial page above 4 printed pages is charged to the author at CHF 325.00.

E-pub First

All articles are published electronically ahead of print with a DOI number and are supplemented later with the definite reference of the printed version. The articles become available immediately after the authors' approval to publication, with the added advantage of being citable much earlier than in print. Authors can influence the time of appearance by promptly returning the proofs.


PDF proofs are sent to the corresponding author and should be returned with the least possible delay.


Order forms and a price list are sent with the PDF proofs. Orders submitted after the issue is printed are subject to considerably higher prices.