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Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology

Guidelines for Authors


Before submission, please read the Guidelines for Authors for specific requirements for manuscript preparation.

Presentation of manuscripts should follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.


Manuscripts written in English are considered and should be submitted online.

Submission of an article implies author agreement with the below Conditions. To be considered for publication, all manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter signed by all authors stating that the work has not been published, nor is under consideration elsewhere, and that all authors approve the submission.

A Copyright Transfer Form (PDF) with the corresponding author's original (hand-written) signature must be received by the editorial office. Please print and sign the form, and upload it during submission (or fax or scan and e-mail) to make it legally binding.

Names, postal and e-mail addresses of four international experts in the appropriate area of research should accompany each manuscript. At the Editors' discretion scientist(s) selected from this list may be invited to act as referee(s). Referees suggested should not be from the same institution as the author, nor have collaborated with any of the authors within the last 3 years.


In case of problems with submission, please contact:

Susan Aeschbach
Editorial Office 'Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology'
S. Karger AG
P.O. Box
CH–4009 Basel (Switzerland)
Tel. +41 61 306 1344
Fax +41 61 306 1434


All manuscripts are subject to editorial and peer-review. Manuscripts are received with the explicit understanding that the work has not been published (wholly nor in part), and is not under simultaneous consideration in any language elsewhere. Furthermore, all authors have made substantial contributions and confirm that they have seen and approve the manuscript submission. Submission of an article for publication implies the transfer of the copyright from the author to Karger Publishers upon acceptance. Accepted papers become the permanent property of 'Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology' and may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce illustrations, tables, etc. from other publications.
For legal reasons, we must receive your 'Submission Statement' with your original (hand-written) signature. Please download, print, sign and either fax or scan it to make it legally binding.
It is a policy of the journal that nucleotide sequence data should be deposited with the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ libraries prior to publication, and the accession number should be quoted in the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

Authors are required to disclose any sponsorship or funding arrangements related to the research presented in the manuscript and any possible conflicts of interest. A possible conflict of interest does not preclude consideration of a manuscript for publication, but the Editor might consider it appropriate to publish the disclosed information with the paper. All forms of support and financial involvement should be listed in the Acknowledgements section of the paper. The cover letter should certify that all forms of conflict of interest by all authors were clearly identified in the text.


Research must comply with the guidelines for human studies and animal welfare regulations. Manuscripts reporting studies on human subjects should include evidence that the research was ethically conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. In particular, authors must state in the Materials and Methods section that subjects (or their parents or guardians) have given their informed written consent and that the study protocol was approved by an appropriate ethics committee. All patients should be identified by numbers or aliases, not by their real names. Authors should also state that animal experimentation was approved by the appropriate institutional review body. Copies of these guidelines and policy statements must be available for review by the editors if necessary.

Plagiarism Policy

Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. Karger Publishers defines plagiarism as reproduction of another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation.
If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).


Authors should indicate in the cover letter which manuscript type is being submitted for publication:

Research Articles: Fully documented reports of original research that must describe full sets of interesting, original experiments in current research. Consideration for publication is based on originality, novelty, scientific soundness, and appropriate analysis (Maximum 5,000 words, 80 references, plus tables/figures). Research articles should be sub-divided into the following sections:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction (concise with no sub-headings)
  • Results (may be sub-divided)
  • Discussion (results and discussion may be combined and may include sub-headings)
  • Experimental Procedures (sufficiently detailed to permit the experiments to be reproduced)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Reviews: Comprehensive, state-of-the-art papers covering a timely topic by experts in the field. Reviews are usually invited by the Editor but may be unsolicited. Authors are asked to contact the Editor-in-Chief before submission in order to avoid clashes with other pending reviews. All reviews are subject to peer-review (Maximum 9,000 words, plus tables/figures, references). Reviews should be sub-divided into the following sections:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction (concise with no sub-headings)
  • The main text of the paper (divided under various headings as appropriate to the article)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Letters to the Editor: These are encouraged if they directly concern articles recently published in this journal. If accepted, the Editor reserves the right to submit such letters to the authors of the articles concerned prior to publication in order to permit them to respond in the same issue of the journal. In exceptional cases, Letters to the Editor may also address data published in another journal or general subjects related to matters discussed in the journal. No abstract is required. (Maximum 1,200 words)

Short Communications: Short reports, brief laboratory observations, and preliminary communications, can be submitted for accelerated publication under Short Communications. Such communications should represent complete, original studies of new findings of sufficient importance to justify their accelerated acceptance. Short Communications should include an abstract and running title, but should not be divided into introduction, results, discussion, and experimental procedures sections. Sub-sections specifying topics are permissible. (Maximum 1,600 words, 10 references, plus 2 figures or tables)

Editorials: Usually invited by the Editor and provide comments on specifically selected articles published in 'Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology'. Please send suggestions to the Editor. No abstract is required. (Maximum 1,000 words, 10 references)


The preferred word processing program is MS-Word. The cover letter, the manuscript, the tables and figures must be submitted in separate files. The manuscript file must contain all the text elements in the following order: title page, abstract and key words, main text, acknowledgments, references, table and figure legends. Tables and figures should be submitted as separate files according to the instructions below. Automatic line numbering should be used, continuous from the title page through to the final page. All pages should be numbered, starting from the title page, including figure legends, tables and figures.

Title page: The first page should contain a concise title of the article along with a short title for use as a running head (no more than 80 characters), the full names of the authors and their affiliations (hospital, institute etc. where the work was conducted). The full postal address, telephone and fax numbers, as well as the e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence should be sent must be given at the bottom of the title page.

Key words: 3-10 key words that reflect the content of the paper must be included.

Abstract: Each research article and review needs an unstructured abstract of up to 200 words.

Footnotes: Footnotes should be avoided. When essential, they should be numbered consecutively and appear at the foot of the appropriate page.

Acknowledgements: Include all sources of funding for the research presented in the manuscript, and substantive contributions of individuals regarding the research or manuscript. All possible conflicts of interest should also be given here.

Abbreviations: Abbreviations (with the exception of those clearly well-established in the field) should be explained when they are first used.

Units of measurement: Concentration to be given in g/l, etc., or molarity, M. Use the format microgram (greek letter mu + g)/ml not microgram (greek letter mu + g) ml-1. Note ml not mL.

Tables and illustrations: Tables and figures must be numbered (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2) and submitted as separate files. Tables require a heading and figures a legend, which must provide sufficient information for either to stand alone. Each figure and table must be cited in the text numerically. Tables should be in Word format. When possible, group several illustrations in a block for reproduction (max. size 180 x 223 mm). B/w half-tone and color figures must have a final resolution of 300 dpi after scaling to final size, line drawings 1200 dpi. Color figures must be in RGB format. All figures should be in a common format such as PSD, TIF, PNG EPS or WMF. Vector graphics should be in PPT, AI or EPS format. See the Technical Instructions for more information.

Color Illustrations

Online edition: Color figures are reproduced free of charge. In the print version, the figures are reproduced in black and white. Referring to colors in the text and figure legends should be avoided.

Print edition: Up to 6 color figures per page can be integrated within the text at CHF 960.– per page.


Identify references in the text text missing by naming the authors and the year [in square brackets]. 1 author: [Saier, 1994]; 2 authors: [Altschul and Karlin, 1990]; 3 or more authors: [Yen et al., 2002]. Multiple references listed within square brackets should be in alphabetical order and separated by a semi-colon: [Altschul and Karlin, 1990; Saier, 1994]. Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be referred to as ‘unpublished data’ and should not be included in the reference list. The reference list should include only those publications which are cited in the text. Arrange the reference list in strict alphabetical order. Each Author's surname should be followed by their initials with no punctuation other than a comma to separate individual authors. Preferably cite all authors (if not possible include at least 3 authors followed by et al). Papers by the same authors should be listed according to publication year; for papers by the same authors published in the same year, add the letters a, b, c, etc. directly (no space) after the year. Abbreviate journal names according to the list of journals indexed for MEDLINE on the NLM website. Also see International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.


(a) Papers published in periodicals: Nopp A, Cardell LO, Johansson SGO: CD-Sens can be a reliable and easy-to-use complement in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013;161:87-90.

(b) Papers published only with DOI numbers: Rubin DA, Cano-Sokoloff N, Castner DL, Judelson DA, Wright P, Duran A, Haqq AM: Update on body composition and bone density in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Horm Res Paediatr DOI: 10.1159/000350824.

(c) Monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Understanding Medical Statistics, ed 4, revised. Basel, Karger, 2007.

(d) Edited books: Costa-Pinto FA, Basso AS: Neural and behavioral correlates of food allergy; in Bienenstock J (ed): Allergy and the Nervous System. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2012, vol 98, pp 222-239.

(e) Websites: Karger Publishers: Transforming Vesalius: The 16th-Century Scientific Revolution Brought to Life for the 21st Century. Basel, Karger, 2013. http://www.vesaliusfabrica.com/en/new-fabrica.html.

(f) Websites with access date: World Health Organization: Leprosy elimination project: status report. 2003. http://www.who.int/lep/Reports/s20042.pdf (accessed May 15, 2005).

Reference Management Software: The use of EndNote is recommended to facilitate formatting of citations and reference lists. The journal output style can be downloaded from http://endnote.com/downloads/styles.

Multimedia Files and Supplementary Material

Multimedia files and other supplementary files, directly relevant but not essential to the conclusions of a paper, enhance the online version of a publication and increase its visibility on the web. These files will undergo editorial review. The Editors reserve the right to limit the scope and length of the supplementary material. Multimedia and supplementary material should meet production quality standards for publication without the need for any modification or editing. Files should not exceed 10 MB in size. Figures and tables need to have titles and legends, and all files should be supplied separately and labeled clearly. All supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. A DOI number will be assigned to supplementary material and it will be hosted online at https://karger.figshare.com under a CC BY license. Authors will be charged a processing fee of CHF 250.00 for supplementary material.

English Language Editing

For authors whose native language is not English, use of a professional language editing service prior to submission can help to avoid delays with the review process.

Page Charges

There are no page charges for papers of 6 or less printed pages (including tables, illustrations and references). Authors are charged CHF 325.- for each additional complete or partial printed page. 1 printed page is equal to approximately 3 manuscript pages.

Self-Archiving/Green Open Access

Karger permits authors to archive their pre-prints (i.e. pre-peer review) or post-prints (i.e. accepted manuscript after peer review but before production) on their personal or their institution’s internal website. In addition, authors may post their accepted manuscripts in public Open Access repositories and scientific networks (e.g. ResearchGate or Mendeley) no earlier than 12 months following publication of the final version of their article. For all self-archiving, the posted manuscripts must:

  • Be used for noncommercial purposes only
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘This is the peer-reviewed but unedited manuscript version of the following article: [insert full citation, e.g. Cytogenet Genome Res 2014;142:227–238 (DOI: 10.1159/000361001)]. The final, published version is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central due to funding requirements will be submitted by Karger on the author’s behalf [see Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)].

For self-archiving Author's ChoiceTM (Gold Open Access) articles, see Author's ChoiceTM.

Author's Choice

Karger’s Author's ChoiceTM service broadens the reach of your article and gives all users worldwide free and full access for reading, downloading and printing at www.karger.com. The option is available for a one-time fee of CHF 3,000.00, which is a permissible cost in grant allocation. More information can be found at www.karger.com/authors_choice.
The final, published version of the article may be posted at any time and in any repository or on other websites, in accordance with the relevant Creative Commons license. Reposted Open Access articles must:

  • Follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license
  • Be linked to the final version on www.karger.com
  • Include the following statement:

‘The final, published version of this article is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number].’

It is the author’s responsibility to fulfill these requirements.

For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article.

Funding Organizations (NIH etc.)

The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates that accepted, peer-reviewed manuscripts are archived in its digital database, PubMed Central (PMC), within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger submits NIH-funded articles to PMC on behalf of the authors immediately upon publication. The NIH assigns a PMCID within approximately 1 month and the manuscript will appear in PMC after a 12-month embargo. For authors making their paper Open Access through Author's ChoiceTM, the embargo will be overridden, thereby accelerating the accessibility of the article. Karger also complies with other funders’ requirements (including Wellcome Trust and RCUK) for submission to PMC.
Authors should include information on their grant in the Acknowledgements section of their papers.

Copy Editing

Manuscripts accepted for publication by Karger Publishers are subject to copy editing. Changes introduced by the copy editor and/or questions will be marked in the manuscript and should be checked against the proofs (the edited manuscript will be returned with the proofs).


An e-mail containing a link to download the proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Proofs should be returned within 48 hours. Alterations made in proofs, other than the correction of printer's (introduced) errors, are charged to the author and may require editorial approval.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A DOI number will be available as a unique identifier on the title page of each article. DOIs are useful for identifying and citing articles published online without volume or issue information (for more information, see www.doi.org).


Order forms and a price list are sent with the proof information. Orders submitted after the issue is printed are subject to considerably higher prices.

Free Online Subscription

The corresponding authors of all papers will receive a one-year online subscription to 'Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology' free of charge.